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MGT 305- Unit 1

why managers are important (3) necessary in chaotic times, getting things done, most important variable for employees
manager coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished
three levels of knowledge rote, integration, critical thinking
efficiency getting the most output with the least amount of input
effectiveness "doing the right things"- doing those work activities that will help the organization reach its goals
how are organizations changing? open communication, teams, flexible work arrangements, supplier alliances
engagement enjoy working, feel important, doing best, development, quality, etc.
Fayol 5 functions forecast/plan, organize, command, coordinate, control
4 functions of management plan, organize, lead, control
three historical approaches classical, quantitative, behavioral
Classical approaches AKA universal process, rational management, general administration
Henri Fayol 14 principles, POCCC *Classical
Max Weber bureaucracy *Classical
Frederick Taylor Scientific Method- shovels *Classical
Management Science WW2 inventories *Quantitative
Quality Advocates Shewart (statisical) , Deming (cars in Japan) *Quantitative
Eldon Mayo invented philosophy of industrial humanism (lighting thing) *Behavioral
Behavioral Approach human relations; unions; organizational behavior
Mintzberg Model <10 minutes per activity; Interpersonal, informational, decisional
three times (hierarchical) of managers first line, middle, top
how is management changing? efficiency, customer service
universality of management management needed in all kinds of organizations
organizational behavior the actions of people at work
top engagement factors in US respect, pay, type, benefits, work/life balance
E/I extroverted or introverted
S/N sensing or intuitive
T/F thinking or perceiving
J/P judging or perceiving
big five personality model extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience
traits relevant to OB (6) core self evaluation, machiavellianism, narcissism, self-monitoring, risk taking, type A/B
core self evaluation self esteem, locus of control
machiavellianism the ends justify the means
self monitoring part of emotional intelligence
personality assessment in different cultures asian- conscientiousness; middle east- external locus of control;
John Holland's Personality- Job Fit Theory vocational preference inventory; six personality types;
affect emotion and mood
mood longer (climate)
emotion shorter (weather)
perception (3) perceiver, target, situation
shortcuts used in judging others (5) selective perception, halo effect, contrast effects, projection, stereotyping
fundamental attribution error underestimate external influence; overestimate internal influence
self-serving bias win= I'm amazing lose= not my fault
shaping the process of guiding learning in graduated steps using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement
ADKAR awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinforcement (culture)
Cameron and Freeman Model organic vs mechanistic; internal vs external
clan (Cameron Freeman) organic and internal
hierarchy (Cameron Freeman) mechanistic and internal
adhocracy (Cameron Freeman) organic and external
market (Cameron Freeman) external, mechanistic
organizational culture collection of shared beliefs, values, rituals, stories, myths, heroes, and specialized language
weak organizational culture inward focus, morale problems, inconsistency, subcultures, warfare, elitism
culture originally comes from the CEO
basic communication model sender (encode)->medium->receiver (decode)-> feedback (to sender) **noise**
strategic communication model organization -> messages/images -> constituencies -> response (back to organization)
media richness a medium's capacity to convey information and promote learning
rich media facilitates feedback, many cues **in person
lean media limited info, no feedback, impersonal **emails, etc.
barriers to effective communication (6) filtering, emotions, information overload, defensiveness, language, national culture
grapevine informal organizational communication network
early management merchants were originally bad, but managers required to get things done
operant conditioning behavior is a function of its consequences
social learning theory people can learn through observation and direct experience
contemporary communication issues legal and security issues; personal interaction issues
omnipotent view managers are directly responsible for an organization's success or failure
symbolic view much of success or failure is due to outside issues
strong cultures key values are deeply held and widely shared
workplace spirituality organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work that takes place in the context of community
what % of workforce engaged? 20%
Gallup survey measures employee engagement
systems approach performance of the whole > sum of the performance of the parts
Chester Bernard (contemporary)-> all organizations are cooperative systems
contingency approach workable compromise
Peters and Waterman searched for excellence across companies
cultural forms (4) symbols, language, stories, practices
engagement numbers down since 1987
decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem
four functions of communication control, motivation, information, expression
three types of questions neutral, assumptive yes, assumptive no
low/high context cultures low= verbal more important; high= setting more important
for bad news use indirect communication
for good news use direct communication
what is more powerful than words? body language
Created by: melaniebeale
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