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Med. Term. Ch.6

Blood, Lymphatic and Immune System

QuestionAnswer
antigen substancet that when entering the body, prompts the generation of antibodies, causing an immune response
autoimmune type of immue response by the body against its own ceells or tissues
capillaries microscopic blood vessels that connect the ends of the smallest arteries (arterioles) with the smallest veins (venules) of the circulator system
hematopoiesis production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
immune response defense function of the body that protects it against invaiding pathogens, foreign tissues, and malignancies
immunodeficiency decreased or compromised ability to fight disease or a condition resulting from a defective immue mechanism
interstitial fluid fuild between cells and in tissue spaces
lymphocyte type of WBC found in the lymph nodes, speed, blood stream, and lymph that functions in body's immune systme by recognizing and deactivating foreign substances (antigens)
monocytes large white blood cells formed in the bone marrow that circulate in the blood stream and destroys pathogenic bacteria through phagocytosis
oncology the study of cancerous growths (malignancies)
pathogens any microorganism capable of producing disease
transfusion collection of blood or a blood component from a donor followed by its infusion into a recipient
agglutin/o clumping, gluing
embol/o embolus (plug)
eryth/o red
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
leuk/o white
myel/o bone marrow; spinal chord
thromb/o blood clot
ven/o vein
aden/o gland
immun/o immune, immunity, safe
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph gland (node)
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
phag/o swallowing, eating
splen/o spleen
thym/o thymus gland
-emia blood condition
-phage swallowing, eating
-phylaxis protection
-poiesis protection
-stasis standing still
macro- large
micro- small
mono- one
anemia blood disorder characterized by a deficiency of red blood cell production and hemoglobin, increased red blood cell destruction, or blood loss
aplastic failure of bone marrow to produce stem cells because it has been damaged by disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy, drugs; rare but serious form of anemia
pernicious deficiency of erythcytes due to inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body, which plays a vital role in hematopoiesis
sickle cell hereditary disorder of anemia characterized by crescent or sickle-shaped erythrocytes. particularly prevalent among persons of African descent
thalassemia group of hereditary anemias caused by an inability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in people of Mediterranean origin
hemophilia group of hereditary bleeding disorders characterized by a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of blood
leukemia malignant disease of the bone marrow characterized by excessive production of leukocytes
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) deficiency of cellular immunity induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), characterized by increasing susceptibility to infections,malignancies, and neurological diseases
Hodgkin disease malignant disease characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue (usually first evident in cervical lymph nodes), splenomegaly, and the presence of unique Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymph nodes
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) retrovirus that causes AIDS
immunodeficiency disease any of a group of diseases caused by a defect in the immune system and generally characterized by susceptibility to infections and chronic diseases
Kaposi sarcoma malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue that is commonly fatal (tumors readily metastasize to various organs) and closely associated with AIDS
lymphadenitis inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection
lymphedema debilitating condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system that prevents lymph fluid in the upper limbs from draining adequately
mononucleosis acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and characterized by a sore throat, fever, fatigue, and enlarged lymph nodes
multiple myeloma malignant disease of bone marrow plasma cells (antibody-produing B lymphocytes)
non-Hodgkin lymphoma any of a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue except for Hodgkin disease. (lymphosarcoma)
opportunistic infection any infection that results from a defective immune system that cannot defend against pathogens normally found in the environment
stroke sudden loss of neurological function, caused by vascular injury (loss of blood flow) to an area of the brain (CVA)
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with variable features that affect many body systems, particularly the skin, kidneys, heart, and lungs
bone marrow aspiration removal of a small amount of tissue (bone marrow biopsy) to diagnose a blood disorders (such as anemias), cancers, or infectious diseases or to gather cells for late infusion into a patient (bone marrow transplantation)
ELISA test to screen blood for presence of HIV antibodies or for other disease-causing substances
lymphangiography radiographic examination of lymph glands and lymphatic vessels after an injection of a contrast medium to view the path of lymph flow as it moves into the chest region
tissue typing technique used to determine the histocompatability of tissues; used in grafts and transplants with the recipient's tissues and cells (histocompatibility testing)
Western blot test to detect presence of viral DNA in the blood and used to confirm the diagnosis of AIDS as well as detecting other viruses
blood transfusion administration of whole blood or a component, such as packed red cells, to replace blood lost through trauma, surgery, or disease
bone marrow transplant diseased bone marrow is destroyed by irradiation and chemotherapy, then replaced from a healthy donor to simulate production of normal blood cells. Used to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and certain cancers
lymphangiectomy removal of a lymph vessel
anticoagulants prevent or delay blood coagulation
immunizations vaccination or injection of immune globulins to induce immunity to a particular infectious disease
immunosuppressants supress the immune response to prevent organ rejection after transplantation or slow the progression of autoimmune disease
thrombolytics dissolve a blood clot
vaccinations introduction of altered antigens (viruses or bacteria) into the body to produce an immune response and protect against disease
hematology study of blood and blood-forming tissues and diseases associated with these tissues. first to use chemical therapies (chemotherapy) to treat malignancies. closely associated with oncology
immunology study of body's protection from invading organisms and its response to them
antigen anything that causes an immune response
pathogens disease-causing antigens
immune response body's ability to fight disease and protect itself depends on an adequately function immune response
immunologists treats and studies body's defense mechanisms and responses to foreign substances invasion. including autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency
blood composed of a clear yellow fluid (plasma) and various cell types. function: transport oxygen and nutrients to body. remove carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes
formed elements main types (3) of cells
erythrocytes red blood cells. deliver oxygen to body via circulatory system
leukocytes white blood cells. provide line of defense against pathogens.
platelets clotting cells
hematopoiesis all three cells are produced in the bone marrow by this process
four main blood types (groups) A B AB O <- based on presence or absence of A or B antigens on the RBC. antigens (aka markers) stimulate production of antibodies
agglutinate blood of different types clump together, bad
type O is a universal donor
AB is a universal recipient
Rh factors when this antigen is present on RBC then it is further classified as Rh-positive (Rh+). when it is not present, then it is Rh-negative (Rh-)
transfusion with Rh+ person can receive transfusion from both Rh+ or Rh- while person with Rh- blood can only receive transfusion from Rh- blood only
lymphatic system lymph, lymph vessels, nodes, 3 organs: tonsils, thymus, spleen. has white blood cells. responsible for immunity (monocytes) and lymphocytes.
interstitial fluid is created when certain components of blood plasma is filtered through tiny capillaries into the spaces between the cells called interstitial or intercellular spaces
lymph capillaries thin-walled vessels
lymph nodes clumps of tissues located in clusters in areas like the neck, under arm, pelvis, groin
sickle cell anemia not enough RBC to carry adequate oxygen through the body. irregular shaped cells, like crescent moons. caused fatigue, dyspnea on exertion, swollen joints. highest on african americans and mediteranean ancestry. no cure, there is treatment
Created by: 697149295