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Research Ch. 3

Chapter 3 of Research Design

Deception Prove that the benefit outweighs the risk. Active Deception - Actively Lying Passive Deception - Withholding Information
Active Deception Sometimes described as deception by commission; it involves actively manipulating the truth by presenting the research participants with false information or using some other ruse to directly trick them.
Active Deception Example Having them unsuspectingly interact with confederates who pretend to be other participants
Belmont Report A landmark report by a national commission in the 1970s delegated the responsibility to protect the right and welfare of human participants in biomedical and behavioral research.
Beneficence The aspirational ideal to "do good," for example, by maximizing the societal and scientific benefits of research, one of several ethical principles discussed in this book.
Confidentiality Protection of research participants or survey respondents disclosures against unwarranted access.
Debriefing The process of disclosing to participants more about the full nature of the research in which they participated and if an active or passive deception was used, why it was believed to be necessary.
Double Deception A deception embedded in what the research participants thinks is the official debriefing, double deception is unethical because it leaves participants with a lie.
Ethical Principles Accepted or professed rules of action to help researchers decide what aspects of a study might pose an ethical problem and in general terms, how to avoid it.
Ethics The moral values by which behavior is judged.
Expedited Review An evaluation, without undue delay, of proposed research of minimal risk by an institutional review board (IRB)
Informed Consent The procedure in which prospective research participants, who have been told what they will be getting into by volunteering, formally agree to participate in the research.
Institutional Review Board A group set up to make rish-benefit analyses of proposed studies and on the basis of such analyses approve or reject research proposals. (and also monitor research)
Justice The aspirational ideal of impartiality (e.g. the fair distribution of benefits and burdens) one of the ethical principles discussed in this book.
Lazy Writing Written work that is saturated with quoted material that, with a little more effort, could have been paraphrased (and, of course, referenced)
Minimal Risk Studies in which the likelihood and extent of harm to the participants are believed to be no greater than those typically experienced in everyday life; such studies are generally eligible for an expedited review by an institutional review board.
Nonmaleficence The aspirational ideal to "do no harm" one of several ethical principals discussed in this book.
Passive Deception Deceiving research subject by omission, such as withholding certain details of the study, or not informing them of the meaning of their responses when they are given a projective test.
Plagiarism Representing someone else's work as one's own
Risk-benefit Analysis An evaluation of the potential risks of harm and the projected (societal and scientific) benefits of proposed studies.
Three R's Principle The widely accepted proposition that scientists should (a) reduce the number of animals used in the research (b) refine their animal experiments so that the animals suffer less and (c) replace animals with other procedures whenever possible.
Trust The establishment of a relationship of integrity with the research participants.
Created by: alinderm