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M Pain Modal


acute pain pain of less than 6 months' duration for which an underlying pathology can be identified
a-beta fibers large, myelinated nerve fibers with the receptors located in the skin, bones, and joints that transmit sensation related to vibration, stretching of skin, and mechanoreception. when working abnormally, these fibers can contribute to the sensation of pain
a-delta fibers small, myelinated nerve fibers that transmit pain quickly to the CNS in response to high intensity mechanical stimulation, heat, or cold. Pain transmitted by these fibers usually has a sharp quality.
afferent nerves nerves that conduct impulses from the periphery toward the CNS
allodynia pain that occurs in response to stimuli that do not usually produce pain
analgesia reduced sensibility to pain
autonomic nervous system the division of the nervous system that controls involuntary activities of smooth and cardiac muscles and glandular secretion. the autonomic nervous system is composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
c fibers small, unmyelinated nerve fibers that transmit pain slowly to the CNS in response to noxious levels of mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimulation. pain transmitted by these fibers is usually dull, long-lasting, and aching
chronic pain pain that persists beyond the usual or expected length of time for tissue healing
complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) a chronic disease characterized by severe pain, usually in an arm or leg, associated with dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and central sensitization, usually following trauma. CRPS was previously called reflex sympathetic dystrophy
efferent nerves nerves that conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery
endogenous opioid theory the theory that pain is modulated at peripheral, spinal cord, and cortical levels by endogenous neurotransmitters that bind to the same receptors of exogenous opioids
endorphins old name for opiopeptins
enkephalins pentapeptides that are naturally occurring in the brain and that bind to opioid receptors, producing analgesic and other opioid-associated effects
gate control theory of pain modulation the theory that pain is modulated at the spinal cord level by inhibitory effects of innocuous afferent input
hyperalgesia increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli
neurotransmitter a substance released by presynaptic neurons that activates postsynaptic neurons
nociception the sensory component of pain
nociceptors nerve endings that are activated by noxious stimuli, contributing to a sensation of pain
noxious stimulus any stimulus that triggers the sensation of pain
opiopeptins endogenous opioid-like peptides that reduce the perception of pain by binding to opioid receptors. opiopeptins were previously called endorphins
pain an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or threatened tissue damage
pain gating the inhibition of pain by inputs from non-nociceptive afferents
pain-spasm-pain cycle the cycle in which nociceptor activation results in transmission cell activation that stimulates anterior horn cells to cause muscles to contract.
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) patients control own pain pump
referred pain pain experienced in one area when the actual or threatened tissue damage has occurred in another area
sensitization a lowering of the pain threshold that increases the experience of pain
substance P a chemical mediator thought to be involved in the transmission of neuropathic and inflammatory pain
sympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system involved int the "fight or flight" response fo the body, causing increased heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating as will as dilation of the pupils
synapse the site of functional connection between neurons where an impulse is transmitted from one neuron (the presynaptic neuron) to another (the postsynaptic neuron) usually by a chemical neurotransmitter
transduction a process by which a chemical or mechanical stimulus is converted into electrical activity
transmission cells (T cells) second-order neurons located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that receive signals from pain fibers and make connections with other neurons in the spinal cord
Created by: jessigirrl4