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Med. Term. Ch,5

Cardiovascular System

TermDefinition
angioplasty surgical procedure that opens a blocked artery.
arteries large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
capillaries microscopic blood vessels joined arterioles and venules
congenital pertaining to presence of a disorder at the time of birth, which may result from genetic or environmental causes
metabolism the sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism
myocardium middle layer to the walls of heart that is composed of cardiac muscle
veins vessels that return deoxygenated blood to the heart
aneurysm/o widening, widened blood vessel
arteri/o artery
ather/o fatty plaque
atri atrium
cardi/o heart
coron/o heart
phleb/o vein
ven/o vein
thromb/o blood clot
varic/o dilated vein
vas/o vessel; vas deferens; duct
vascul/o vessel
ventricul/o ventricle (of heart or brain)
-cardia heart condition
-stenosis narrowing, stricture
brady- slow
aneurysm localized dilation of a blood vessel wall (usually an artery) due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall
angina pectoris (angina) mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia;
arrhythmia (dysrhythmia) irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
fibrillation irregular, random contraction of heart fibers that commonly occurs in the atria or ventricles of the heart and is usually described by the part that is contracting abnormally, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation
arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls
atherosclerosis most common form of arteriosclerosis caused by accumlation of fatty substances within the arterial walls, resulting in partial and eventually total blockage
bruit soft blowing sound heard on ausculation caused by turbulent blood flow
embolus mass of undissolved matter (commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque, or air bubble) that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
heart block disease of the electrical system of the heart, which controls activity of heart muscle
first degree heart block atrioventricular (AV) block in which the atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction
second degree heart block AV blood in which only some atrial electrical impulses are conducted to the ventricles
third degree heart block (complete heart block CHB) AV block in which no electrical impulses reach the ventricles
heart failure (HF) condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet
hypertension (HTN) consistently elevated blood pressure, causing damage to the blood vessels and ultimately the heart
ischemia inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruption of blood flow
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) structural abnormality in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve does not close completely, resulting in a backflow of blood into the left atrium with each contraction
murmur abnormal sound heard on auscultation caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart
myocardial infarcation (MI) (heart attack) necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries
patent ductus arteriosus failure of the ductus arteriosus (which connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch in a fetus) to close after birth, resulting in an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
raynaud disease (Raynaud phenomenon) severe, sudden vasoconstriction and spasm in fingers and toes followed by cyanosis after exposure to cold temperature or emotional stress
rheumatic heart disease streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, most commonly in children and young adults
stroke damage to part of the brain due to (cerebrovascular accident CVA) interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or more commonly blockage of an artery
thrombus (blood clot) a stationary blood clot formed within a blood vessel or within the heart, commonly causing vascular obstruction
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most commonly
transcient ischemic attack (TIA) (ministroke) blood supply to part of the brain is briefly interrupted but does not cause permanent brain damage and may be a warning sign of a more serious and debilitating stroke in the future
cardiac catheterization insertion of a small tube (catheter) through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm (brachnial approach) or leg (femoral approach) that is then threaded through a blood vessel until it reaches the heart
cardiac enzyme studies battery of blood tests performed to determine the process of cardiac damage
echocardiography ultrasound technique used to image the heart and evaluate how the heart's chambers and valves are working and to diagnose and detect pathological conditions
electrocardiography (cardiography) creation and study of graphic recordings (electrocardiograms) produced by electric activity generated by the heart muscle
Holter moniter monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electrocardiograph reading (usually 24 hours) on a portable tape recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activities
stress test electrocardiography (ECG) taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring oxygen consumption
nuclear stress test ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
troponin I blood test that measures protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (not skeletal muscle) and it is a highly sensitive, specific indicator of recent myocardial infarction
angioplasty surgery that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon within a catheter to widen and restore blood flow in the artery
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) angioplasty in which peripheral veins are removed and each end of the vein is sutured onto the coronary artery to create new routes around narrowed and blocked arteries, allowing sufficient blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle
cardioversion (defibrillation) restoration of normal heart rhythm by applying an electrical countershock to the chest using a device called a defibrillator
defibrillator device used to administer a defibrillating electric shock to restore normal heart rhythm
automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) (impantable cardioverter defibrillator) surgically implanted electrical device that automatically detects and corrects potential fatal arrhythmias by delivering low-energy shocks to the heart
automatic external defibrillator (AED) portable computerized device that analyzes the patient's heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to stimulate a heart in cardiac arrest
endarterectomy surgical removal of the lining of an artery
carotid endartecrectomy removal of plaque (atherosclerosis) and thromboses from an occluded carotid artery to reduce the risk of stroke
endovenous laser therapy (EVLT) (endovenous laser ablation EVLA)treatment of large varicose veins in the legs in which a laser fiber is inserted directly into the directly into the affected vein to heat the lining within the vein, causing it to collapse, shrink, and eventually disappear
sclerotheraphy chemical injection into a varicose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue which closes the veins
valvuloplasty (percutaneous valvuloplasty) insertion of a balloon catheter in a blood vessel in the groin through the aorta and into the heart to widen a stenotic (stiffened) heart valve and increase blood flow
anticoagulants prevent the clotting or coagulation of blood
beta blockers slow the heart rate and reduce the force with which the heart muscle contracts, thereby lowering blood pressure
nitrates relieve chest pain associated with angina and ease symptoms of heart failure (HF)
statins reduce cholesterol levels in the blood and block production of an enzyme in the liver that produce cholesterol
thrombolytics dissolve blood clots in a process known as thrombolysis
cardiologist treats adults
pediatric cardiologist treats infants, children, and adolescents
cardiovascular system CV composed of the heart (muscular pump), extensive network of blood vessels purpose: is to deliver oxygen, nutrients and other substances, remove cellular metabolism
CV process carried out by arteries, capillaries, and veins
blood circulation through heart and body depends on contraction of the heart, or heart and nerve tissues in the conduction system of the heart
systole contraction
diastole resting period between contractions when heart fills with blood
coronary artery disease CAD page 119 condition involves narrowing of the coronary arteries, resulting in failure of the arteries to deliver an adequate supply of oxygenated blood to the heart muscle (myocardium)
arteriostenosis narrowing of the arterial walls, caused by atherosclerosis
occlusion total blockage in artery from plaque accumulation
infarction area of the heart muscle dies
treatment for CAD angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft CABG
varicose veins (varicosities) dilation of veins from long periods of pressure prevents complete closure of the valves. enlarged, twisted, superficial veins. blue, bulging
healthy veins competent
unhealthy veins incompetent. do not close completely
varicose veins. page 120 increases risk of thrombosis. treatment: sclerotherapy, endovenous laser ablation EVLA (larger veins), microphlebectomies (small veins). stripping, ligation
Created by: 697149295