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Digital Final Exam

Final Exam from All Digital Modules

The beam that contains useful or diagnostic information is known as the: Remnant Beam
Digital imaging systems have a large dynamic range, which means that they can respond to a wide range of: Exposures
In analog imaging, the intensifying screen converts x-rays into: Light Photons
In an analog-to-digital converter, the analog input consists of: Electrons
What symbols compose the binary language? 0, 1
How many shades of gray does an 8-bit image display? 256
As the pixel size decreases, the recorded detail: Increases
Scintillation refers to a material’s ability to give off: Light
The acronym PSP stands for photostimulable: Phosphor
During processing, image data is released from a PSP receptor after the receptor is struck by: Red Laser Beam
Direct image formation converts x-rays into: Electrons
Individual components of a digital image are collected in areas of a thin-film transistor known as: DELs
Random information within a diagnostic image that detracts from the overall image appearance is known as: Noise
CCDs are suitable for low-dose imaging because they: Respond to low light levels
DQE is a measure of image: Quality
Selecting a lower sampling frequency during image processing results in: larger pixel size and lower spatial resolution
For flat-panel detectors, the spatial resolution is determined by the size of the: DELs
The Nyquist theorem states that for a given spatial resolution, you must sample the signal at ____ times the desired sampling frequency. 2
A digital receptor can produce an image that appears acceptable on a display monitor, but that was produced between: 50% Underexposure and 100% Overexposure
Which of the following is a visual cue that a digital image is underexposed? Increase in image noise
Receptor blur is the result of: Imaging Equipment
When a digital fluoroscopy unit’s magnification button is used, the resulting magnification is due to a decrease in the size of the: Input Phosphor
Scanning the bar code on a PSP plate is extremely important because it links the image data with the correct: Patient
Which device allows for an increased scanning precision compared with a mechanical arm? Rotating Mirror
In a PSP plate reader, the light guide collects the light and directs it into a: Photomultiplier Tube
PSP plates are erased after processing by exposing the plate to: High intensity light
When using a flat-panel detector, the technologist does not touch the: Image Detector
In a flat-panel imaging system, electrons are converted into digital values by a(n): ADC
What do both a charge-coupled device and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor need to change x-rays into light? A Scintillator
What happens when a PSP plate reader is unable to identify the collimated borders of the image? Poor Image Quality
A graphical representation of exposure values extracted from an image receptor is known as a: Histogram
Type 3 a priori analysis is unique because it takes into account which patient characteristic? Prosthesis
Neural analysis compares exposure data from the receptor with: Values in a predefined data set
Visual cues that an image has been overexposed are not easily seen in digital radiography because of: Rescaling
The acronym EI is a vendor-neutral term that stands for exposure: Indicator
All of the following are examples of EIs except: a) S number b) DQE c) lgM d) REX DQE
The addition of a metal prosthesis into the image data set affects: Image Brightness, Contrast, and EI
If a PSP plate is processed using the wrong anatomical menu, what could happen? the EI number might display improperly.
Optimal EI ranges for each anatomical part should be set by the: Radiologist
Which of the following is an EI used in flat-panel radiography? A)EXI, B)S number, C) DQE, D)lgM EXI
A DAP meter measures patient dose as the x-rays: Enters the patient's skin
All of the following are advantages to digitizing radiographs except: a)Allows radiologists to view images in a new way, b)Provides electronic access to images, c)image can be uploaded to PACS, d)Artifacts removed during the process Artifacts removed during the process
In CRT display technology, an electron gun fires electrons at a(n): Fluorescent Screen
An advantage of LCD monitors over CRT monitors is that LCD monitors: Have less screen glare
An LCD monitor’s resolution is determined by: Pixel Pitch
Most LCD monitors have an aspect ratio of: 16:09
Which of the following increases as the matrix size of a display monitor increases? Spatial resolution
Pixel pitch describes: How close the pixels are to each other
To accurately display the gray scale in a radiograph, the display monitor must be able to demonstrate at least how many distinct shades of gray? 256
The difference between the maximum and minimum luminance of a display system is called: Contrast Resolution
Current ACR standards specify that gray-scale monitors used for interpreting radiographs provide a minimum of how many cd/m2? 171 cd/m2
How many images/second does it take CRT monitors to refresh? 60 - 120
The delayed light emission that occurs in a CRT monitor after the screen refreshes is called: Persistence
The brightness of a display monitor is referred to as: Luminance
Modifying demographic and image data on a workstation also alters the: Permanent Patient Record
If an image is acquired with the orientation of the image receptor upside down, what modality workstation tool can be used to orient the image the correct way? Rotate
Placing image information on an image after the examination is complete is called image: Annotation
When an image is obtained on several imaging plates that need to be combined later into one image, the process is referred to as: Stitching
Cassettes that are specially designed for scoliosis exams contain how many PSP plates? 2
Using a workstation to cover the unexposed area of an image with a black border is called: Shuttering
Window and leveling on a workstation changes the digital image’s: Brightness and contrast
Which of the following would lead to decreased density on an analog (film-based) image? Low development temperature
Radiographic blur can be caused by: Patient Motion and Geometric Factors
Excessive radiation is defined as using more than ________ times the level of radiation needed to produce a diagnostic quality image. 3 to 4
What error is caused by the computer’s inability to identify the edges of collimation? Exposure Field Recognition Error
Improper alignment of a radiographic grid during digital imaging can lead to improper: Contrast
Scatter radiation is especially difficult to interpret during histogram analysis when it occurs: Outside the collimated field
Inappropriate brightness on a digital image can be caused by: Poor collimation, Incorrect menu selection, Poor Positioning
When the exposure absorbed by the image receptor surpasses the level at which the image receptor can respond, what is said to occur? Saturation
What is the most common cause of image blur in digital imaging? The patient
Shape distortion can be caused by: Angular relationship of tube, part and Image receptor
Primary cause of quantum noise is: Insufficient signal strength
DAP is a measurement of: Exposure
A lead apron in the exposure field may cause an exposure indicator miscalculation because the image data could be misrecognized as: Gross underexposure
To reduce errors from collimation, the current recommendation is to: Record one image per image receptor
Most digital artifacts appear: White
Most artifacts that appear when using cassette-based digital imaging are caused by: Dust and dirt
Most artifacts that appear when using cassette-less systems are caused by: DELs
Digital artifacts that are caused by processing: Appear along the entire axis of the image and on every imaging plate.
Artifacts caused by a dirty light guide appear: White and linear
An artifact that presents as a wavy appearance in a localized area of an image is due to: Laser and/or plate disruption
In the abscense of a PACS, digital images can be: Laser printed
How many people can view a digital image on a PACS simultaneously? More than 10
The standard process for transmitting medical images and their associated information is known by the acronym: DICOM
A modality workstation provides information that can be used by a limited number of users is known as a: SCU
A radiology information system (RIS) can do which of the following? Collect and display orders
The software standards used for the exchange of text-based electronic information in health care are known as: HL7
Workstations designated as "diagnostic workstations" typically are used only by: Radiologists
Long-term storage of digital images occurs in which type of storage system? Archive
A typical 5-view lumbar spine series requires storage space up to: 25MB
Which of the following is an example of an image acquisition modality workstation? CT Scanner workstation
A PACS uses RAID as its main: Storage Device
Prefetching generally occurs at what time of day? During the night
The greatest benefit of installing PACS software on existing computers throughout the medical facility is increased: Access
A typical PACS platform receives images from: CT, MR, Digital Fluoroscopy
A computer network limited to a relatively small geographic area is known as a: LAN
Every computer on a network has a unique indentifier known as a(n): IP Address
What device connects 2 or more networks? Router
A firewall controls traffic between a single computer and a network in an environment with no: Security
The major challenge with burning images to a disc to share the image information with another facility is: Viewing images on the receiving end
The term "night hawking" describes a radiologist contractor who: Interprets images off-site
Created by: foster1317