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Egan's Ch. 12

Solutions, Body fluids, and Electrolytes

what is a stable mixture of two or more substances in a single phase, that cannot be separated by centurfuge? solution
What is a substance that dissolves? solute
what is a medium in which a substance dissoled? solvent
what are colloids also know as? dispersions or gels
what is a colloid? a substance consisting of large molecules that attract and hold water.
How are molecules in colloids distributed? uniformly
Do colloids settle? not usually
What is an example of a colloid? the protoplasm inside of cells
What is a suspension? they are composed of large particles that float in a liquid.
can a suspension be physically separated by centerfugation? yes
Give an example of a suspension? red blood cells in plasma
what does NaCl stand for? sodium chloride
what is the normal body cellular tonicity of sodium chloride? 0.9%
what is tonicity? how much osmotic pressure is exerted by a solution
what is hypertonic? high tonicity >0.9% NaCl
what is hypotonic? low tonicity <0.9% NaCl
what is it called when two solutions have the same or similar tonicity? Also, when a solution has an osmotic pressure equal to the average intercellular pressure of the body? isotonic = 0.9%NaCl
how does a hypertonic solution effect the cells? it draws water out of the cells in order to reach equalibrium of pressures
how does a hypotonic solution effect the cells? it adds water to the cells in order to reach equalibrium of pressures
what is the force produced by solvent particles under certain conditions? osmotic pressure
what does osmotic pressure do? it redistributes sovent molecules so that the same concentration exists on bot sides of a semipermeable membrane.
what allows passage of solutes but not solvents? semipermeable membrane
positive ions that migrate to the negative pole of an electrode in an electrolyte solution? cations
negative ions that migrate to the positive pole of an electrode in an electrolyte solution? anions
what is the common expression of the minute values for most chemicals in the body? mEq milligram equivalent weights
what is equivalent weight? amounts of substances that have equal combining power
V1C1 + V2C2 dilution equation
Dilute 10 ml of a 2% solution to a concentration of 0.5%? 10 * 0.02 / 0.005 = 40 ml
what kind of compound can donate H+ or accept an electron pair in an aqueous solution? acid
what kind of acid donates H+? Bronsted-Lowry acid
what kind of acid accepts an electron pair? Lewis acid
what is the relationship between Hydrogen ions and protons? they are the same thing
what is a compound that yeilds hydroxyl (OH) ions when placed in an auqeous solution? base
what is a substance that can inactivate an acid?? base
what is another name for a base compound that inactivates an acid? hydroxide
what do hydroxide ions chemically bind to? metal or ammonium (OH)
What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of a base? any compound that accepts a proton
what is it called when a base is paired with an scid that donates the proton? a conjugate pair
what does the pH scale describe? the concentration of H+ in a solution.
how is pH expressed? -log[H+]
Why is pH expressed as -log[H+]? because the actual numbers are extremely small
What is log? logorithm counts in 10's and increases exponentially; 1=10, 2=100, 3=1000, 4=10000
is pH represented as a positive or a negative number? positive
how do you calculate pH? convert the value for H+ to a negative exponent of 10 and calculate its logarithm; 1 x 10 to the negative 7
what is the pH of water? 7
what is the pH of the body? 7.40 with a range of 7.35-7.45
what is the pH scale? a scale of pH ranging for 1-14 with 7 in the middle representing water, decrease in number becomes more acidic the more it moves to the left, increase in number means more alkaline the more it moves to the right
what does a pH of 3 respresent? acicid
what does a pH of 12 represent? alkaline (basic)
a pH change of 0.3 yeilds what change in H+? 2 fold
a pH change of 1 unit yeilds what change in H+? 10 fold
What is the major component of the body? water
what percentage of the body is water? 45%-80%
what is a valence? the number of electrons that need to be added or removedto make a substance electrically neutral
what effect does increased CO2 have on pH? decreased pH, acidic
what effect does deacreased CO2 have on pH? increased pH, alkaline
what is the fluid between cells but outside of vascular spaces? interstitial fluid
what does interstitial fluid do? provides structural support during times of cellular volume depletion
what are the predominant extracellular electrolytes? Sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), andbicarbonate (HCO3-)
what are the predominatn intracellular electrolytes? potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg++), phosphate (PO43-), and sulfate (SO42-)
What causes the high osmotic pressure of plasma? protein, cheifly albumin
what is an important determinant of fluid distribution between vascular and interstitial compartments? osmotic pressure
intravascular and interstitial fluids have ____ electrolyte compositions? similar
_____ and _____ are examples of insensible water loss. skin and lungs
what is the average daily volume loss of water from the lungs? 200 ml
what is the average daily volume loss of water from tha skin? 700 ml
____ and ____ are examples of sensible water loss. urinary and GI tract
what causes an almost immediate shift of the body to alkalinity? washing out of the stomachs acid; vomitting
what causes an almost immediate shift of the body to acidity? washing out the GI tracts bases; diarrhea
does ventilation have an effect on water loss? yes
____ and ____ are ways to replenish water. ingestion and metabolism
how does most water get replaced? ingestion 500-600 ml just from solid food
how does metabloism replace water? oxidation of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins; also the destruction of cells
what is the metabolic production of water during starvation? 2000 ml/day from 1 kg of fat
what is the metabolic production of water during recovery after surgery or trauma? 1 L/day from 500 mg of protein and 500 mg of fat
what is the average amout of liquid consumed each day by an adult? 1500-2000 ml
what is the pressure caused by the weight of a fluid called? hydrostatic pressure
hydrostatic pressure can also be defined as... the volume of fluid in a container and the effects of gravity
what is the importance of hydrostatic pressure? it enhances the movement of fluid and solutes between capillary blood to interstitial fluid
what causes an increase in hydrostatic pressure? backpressure from failing left ventricle; congestive heart failure
how does an increase in hydrostatic pressure effect the pulmonary circuit? it disrupts the balance, causing fluid to move into the alveolar-capillary spaces; pulmonary edema
what is the normal value of sodium (Na+)? value range? 140 mEq/L 135-145 mEg/L
what is the normal value for chloride (Cl-)? value range? 90 mEq/L 80-100 mEq/L
what is the normal value of potassium (K+)? value range? 4 mEq/L 3.5-4.5 mEq/L
what is the normal value for bicarbonate (HCO3-)? value range? 24 mEq/L 22-26 mEq/L
what is a low level of sodium called? hyponatremia
what is hypernatremia? high level of sodium
what is hypochloremia? low level of chloride
what is a high level of chloride called? hyperchloremia
what is hypokalemia? low level of potassium
what is a high level of potassium called? hyperkalemia
what is the most prominent anion in the body? chloride 2/3 extracellular 1/3 intracellular
what is the second most prominent anion in the body? bicarbonate HCO3- 50% intracellular 50% extracellular
what is the bodies major circulating cation? sodium 50% extracellular 10% intracellular 40% bone
what is the main cation of the intracellular compartment? potassium 98% intracellular 2% extracellular
what is the ratio of bicarbonate (HCO3-) to carbonic acid in a healthy individual? 20:1, resulting in 7.40 pH
bicarbonate (HCO3-) is the primary means of transporting what? CO2 from the tissues to the lungs
hyperkalemia is a common result of what? how is it treated? renal insufficiencey restriction of potassium (K+) intake
what regulates HCO3- levels to maintain a near normal pH in an acid-base disorder? the kidneys
what do the kidneys do in respiratory acidosis? retain or produce HCO3-_to buffer against the additional acid caused byCO2 retention
the retention/ excretion relationship between HCO3- and Cl- concentrations? reciprocal HCO3- retention = Cl- excretion and vice versa
Created by: sarah72388