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Chapter 3-4 Vocab

World Geography

1. Culture the way of life that distinguishes a people for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs.
2. Population Density the average number of people living in a given area
3. Birthrate the number of live births each year per 1000 people
4. Immigrant a person who moves into a country
5. Emigrant a person who leaves a country to live elsewhere
6. Urbanization the growth of city populations
7. Rural of, or characteristics of the countryside
8. Culture Hearth a place in which important ideas begin
9. Cultural Convergence the contact and interaction of one culture with another
10. Diffusion the process by which a cultural element is transmitted from one group or individual to another
11. Cultural Divergence the restriction of a culture from outside influences
12. Natural Resources a material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
13. Renewable Resources a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used
14. Nonrenewable Resources a natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used
15. Fossil Fuel any one of the several nonrenewable resources mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel
16. Nuclear Energy a type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor releasing stored energy
17. Water Power energy produced by falling water to move machinery or generate electricity
18. Geothermal Energy energy produced from the earths intense interior heat
19. Solar Energy energy produced by the sun
20. Sovereignty A country's freedom and power to decide on policies and actions.
21. Unitary System A system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power.
22. Federation A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments.
23. Confederation A system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power.
24. Authoritarian Descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power.
25. Dictatorship A system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.
26. Totalitarianism A system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.
27. Monarchy A system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch, whose position is usually inherited.
28. Democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the power
29. Traditional Economy An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a substance economy.
30. Market Economy An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.
31. Command Economy An economic system that is controlled by a single central government.
32. Primary Economic Activity An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as a fishing or mining.
33. Subsistence Farming Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village.
34. Commercial Farming The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets.
35. Secondary Economic Activity An economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value.
36. Cottage Industry A small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near people's homes.
37. Commercial Industry The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets.
38. Tertiary Economic Activity The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets.
39. Quaternary Economic Activity An economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research.
40. Export An item that is sent out of the country for sale.
41. Import An item that is brought into the country for sale.
Created by: JosephPaulson