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Exam 2

Drugs Affecting Adrenergic Functions

DrugClassificationActionAdverse EffectUsesContraindicationsPrecautionsSide EffectsNursing Implications
Epinephrine (Adrenaline)* Adrenergic agonist, catecholamine Vasoconstriction, increases heart rate, bronchodilator, treatment of choice, anaphylactic reactions *HYPERTENSION*, DYSHYTHMIAS, *ANGINAL PAIN*, *RESTLESSNESS*
Atropine8 anticholinergic, antiarrthymic acts on smooth muscle of the heart and increases cardiac rate *TACHYCARDIA*, palpations, *DRYMOUTH*, *DROWSINESS*, *URINARY HESITANCY*
Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists (Beta-Blockers) Inderal, Tenormin, Lopressor, Corgard Blocks sympathetic nervous system catecholamines, resulting in reduced renin and aldosterone release and fluid balance. Vasodilation of arterioles leads to a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance and blood pressure Hypertension, antianginal agents in long-term treatment of angina; Dysrhythmias- suppress sinus and atrial tachydysrhythmias Pregnancy and tactation Can cause bronchoconstriction; use with caution with diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, cerebrovascular insufficiency, renal or hepatic dysfunction Hypotension, BRADYCARDIA, *DROWSINESS*, Depression, SYMPTOMS OF CONGESTICVE HEART FAILURE; Insomnia, wheezing, dyspnea, malaise, *LETHARGY* Asses Vital Signs; monitor closely if given with a calcium channel blocker; report any weakness, dizziness, bradycardia, or fainting; take medication before meals; Report any edema or difficulty breathing
Beta-Blockers Beta, action is primarily on the heart- decreases rate, force of contraction, and delays impulse conduction. Beta, action is primarily on the heart, but it also blocks receptors in the lungs and can cause bronchoconstriction Uncomplicated hypertension; Dysrhythmias; Angina Diabetes; Bradydysrhythmias; Beta, in hronic respiratory problems Hepatic and renal dysfunction Headache, flushing, dizziness, *FATIGUE* *WEAKNESS*; BRADYCARDIA, postural hypotension; BRONCHOSPASM, BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; Decreased cardiac output, CHF Asses for symptoms of heart failure, Instruct the client report any weakness, dizziness, or fainting
*ACE Inhibitors* BP is regulated by CO and PVR. Meds that influence either one of those systems leads to BP control. Body systems that regulate CO, PVR, and BP include the vascular, cardiac, an renal systems that the SNS. block the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2, a vasoconstrictor. causes vasodilation and decreases PVR, decreasing BP. Aldosterone is also blocked, causing decreased sodium and water retention Rx: Captopril (Capoten); Enalapril (Vasotec); Benazepril (Lotensin) Mild to moderate essential hypertension, Frequently in combination either as separate drugs or in combination drug; Beta-adrenergic blockers are among the most widely used Don't Abruptly stop, never double-up,
*Beta- Blockers* BP is regulated by CO and PVR. Meds that influence either one of those systems leads to BP control. Body systems that regulate CO, PVR, and BP include the vascular, cardiac, an renal systems that the SNS. prevent stmpathetic stimulation of the heart thereby reducing heart rate and contractility Rx: Propranolol (Inderal); Atenolol (Tenormin); Metaprolol (Lopressor) Mild to moderate essential hypertension, Frequently in combination either as separate drugs or in combination drug; Beta-adrenergic blockers are among the most widely used Don't Abruptly stop, never double-up,
*Calcium Antagonists* BP is regulated by CO and PVR. Meds that influence either one of those systems leads to BP control. Body systems that regulate CO, PVR, and BP include the vascular, cardiac, an renal systems that the SNS. influc the beta-receptors, decrease the force of the myocardial contraction, reduce the heart rate, and decrease PVR Rx: Verapamil (Calan Isoptin); Diltiazem (Cardizem); Nifedipine (Procardia) Mild to moderate essential hypertension, Frequently in combination either as separate drugs or in combination drug; Beta-adrenergic blockers are among the most widely used Don't Abruptly stop, never double-up,
IDEA Drugs for Bradycardia and decrease BP Isoproterenol, Dopamine, Epinephrine, Atropine
Isoproterenol* Sympathomimetic, catecholamine Increases heart rate and cardiac output, and causes bronchodilation Tachycardia and angina
Dopamine* Sympathomimetic, catecholamine low doses, causes renal vasodilation. moderate increases cardiac output, stroke volume. Higher increases peripheral resistance, blood pressure, and renal vasoconstriction VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS, angina pain, vasoconstriction, *INCREASE BP*
Topical Vasoconstrictor Sympathomimetic (decongestant) Acts on alpha-adrenergic receptors, causing vasoconstriction with decreased congestion in affected areas. Ophthalmic: relief of itching, congestion, and minor irritations. Inranasal: relief of nasal congestion due to common cold, acute or chronic rhinitis, hay fever, or allergies Narrow-angle Glaucoma Hypertension, heart disease, coronary artery disease; diabetes, hyperthyroidism Ophthalmic: blurred vision, large pupils, increased eye irritation; Intranasal: *BURNING*, *STINGING*, drying nasal mucosa, sneezing, and rebound congestion *instruct the client to use caution with activities that require viusl activity; *Do not use for more than 3 days without a physician's direction; Too frequent use may result in rebound effect
Created by: scherlingk