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Pathology Ch.3(Resp)

The most common type of lung pathology of hospitalized patients? Pulmonary Embolism
Which tumor is more likely to occur in the anterior compartment of the mediastinum? Thyoma
Causes of Diaphragm Elevation Ascites, Obesity, Pregnancy, Any other process in which the intra-abdominal volume is increased.
Rare congenital abnormaility in which one hemidiaphragm is poorly developed. Eventration of the diaphragm
Caused by any process that interferes with the phrenic nerve Diaphraghmatic Paralysis
Disorders of the diaphragm Diaphragmatic paralysis, eventration of the diaphragm and other causes of elevation of the diaphragms
Posterior Mediastinal Masses Neurogenic tumors, neurogenic cysts, aneurysms of the descending aorta, extramedullary hematopioiesis
Middle Mediastinal Masses Lymph node disorders, bronchogenic cysts, vascular anomalies, masses in the anterior costophrenic angle
Anterior Medistinal Masses Thyomas, Tetratomas, Thyroid masses, Lipomas, Lyphoma
What are the three compartments of the mediastinum Anterior, Middle and Posterior
A rare accumulation of infected liquid or frank pus in the pleural cavity. Empyema
Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, Pleural Effusion
Presence of air in the pleural cavity, resulting in a partial or complete collapse of the lung. Pneumothorax
Disorders of the pleura Pneumothorax, Pleural Effusion, Empyema
Free air in the tissues of the chest wall Subcutaneous Emphysema
Defined as air within the mediastinum Mediastinal Emphysema (Pneumomediastinum)
Aspiration of solid foreign bodies into the tracheobronchial tree, occurs almost exclusively in young children Intrabronchial Foreign bodies
In Intrabronchial foreign bodies, which lung is affected most? Right
Lung structure breaks down with massive leakage of cells and fluid into the interstitial and alveolar spaces Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
ARDS is commonly known as "shock lung"
A condition in which there is diminished air within the lung associated with reduces lung volume Atelectasis
An abnormal vascular communication between a pulmonary artery and vein Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula
A bacteria "shower" that enters pulmonary circulation then gets trapped in the lung Septic Embolism
Primary function of the respiratory system? The intake of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood
What is the smalled functional unit of the respiratory system where the actual gas exchange occurs Alveoli
Congenital/Hereditary diseases of the respiratory system Cystic fibrosis, hyaline membrane disease
The secretion of excessively viscous mucus by all exocrine glands. Also affects the pancreas and digestive system. Cystic Fibrosis
What causes Cystic Fibrosis A defective gene in the middle of chromosome 7
One of the most common causes of respiratory distress in newborns Hyaline Membrane Disease
Hyaline Membrane Disease is also know as Idiopathic Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Inflammatory Disorders of the Respiratory System Croup, Epiglottitis
Primarily a viral infection of young children that produces inflammatory obstructive swelling localized to the subglottic portion of the trachea Croup
Croup is characterized by what Barking cough
Most commonly caused by haemophilus influenzae in children. Causes thickening of epiglottic tissue and the surrounding pharyngeal structures Epiglottitis
Inflammatory Disorders of the lower Respiratory System Pneumonia, anthrax, lung abscess, pulmonary mycosis, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Inflammation of the lung(s) that can be caused by a variety of organisms, most commonly bacteria and viruses Pneumonia
What are the 3 radiographic appearances of pneumonia Alveolar, or air space pheumonia, bronchopneumonia, or interstitial pneumonia
Caused by Bacullus Anthracis. Easily transmitted and highly fatal. Can survive in the soil for decades without and host. Anthrax
What are the 3 ways to contract Anthrax? Cutaneous-most common, inhalation-usually fatal without prompt treatment and Gastrointestinal-caused by ingestion of contaminated meat
Necrotic area of pulmonaryparenchyma containing purulent(pus-like material) Lung Abcess
What is the most common cause of Lung Abcess Aspiration
A rod-shaped bacterium with a protective waxy coat that permits it to live outside the body for a long time Tuberculosis
How is Tuberculosis mainly spread? Droplets in the air
A fungal infection of the lung Pulmonary Mycosis
What is the most common system fungal infections in North america? Histoplasmosis
What is the most common cause of bronchiolitis. Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Causes necrosis of the respiratory epithelium of bronchi and bronchioles Respiratory Syncytial Virus
SARS is an acronym for what? Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
How is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome transmitted? Direct or droplet contact
Diffuse Lung Diseases Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Sarcoidosis, Pneumoconiosis
Includes severe condition in which chronic obstruction of the airways leads to an ineffective exchange of respiratory gases and makes breathing difficult. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
A multi system granulomatous disease of unknown cause that is most often detected in young adults. Sarcoidosis
A severe pulmonary disease caused by inhalation of irritating particles. Pneumoconiosis
Most common types of Pneumoconiosis Asbestosis, Slicosis, anthracosis
Which of these is also known as "coal miners disease" anthracosis
Low grade malignant lesions Bronchial Adenoma
What are the most common symptoms of Bronchial Adenoma? hemoptysis, recurring pneumonia
Neoplasms of the Respiratory System Solitary pulmonary nodule, Bronchial Adenoma, Bronchogenic Carcinoma, Pulmonary Metastases
Asymptomatic, Incidental finding on CXR. Problematic in that it could represent benign granuloma, small neoplasm or solitary metastasis Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
Primary carcinoma of the lung. Arises from the mucosa of the bronchial tree Bronchogenic Carcinoma
Most common type of bronchogenic carcinoma Squamous carcinoma
Develops from hematogenous or lymphatic spread Pulmonary Metastases
Vascular diseases of the respiratory system Pulmonary embolism, septic embolism and pulmonary Arteriovenous fistula
Created by: robang6977