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Ch. 3 & 4 Vocab.

Culture. The way that life distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs and beliefs.
Population density. The average number of people living in a given area.
Birthrate. The number of live births each year per 1,000 people.
Immigrant. A person who moves into a country.
Emigrant. A person who leaves a country to live elsewhere.
Urbanization. The growth of city populations.
Rural. Of, or characteristic of, the countryside.
Culture hearth. A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures.
Cultural convergence. The contact and interaction of one culture with another.
Diffusion. The process which a cultural element is transmitted from one group or individual to another.
Cultural divergence. The restriction of a culture from outside influences.
Sovereignty. A country's freedom and power to decide on policies and actions.
Unitary system. A system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power.
Federation. A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments.
Confederation. A system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government.
Authoritarian. Descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power.
Dictatorship. A system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.
Totalitarianism. A system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.
Monarchy. A system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch-a king, queen, shah, or sultan-whose position is usually inherited.
Democracy. A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to chose their leaders and determine government policy.
Traditional economy. An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy.
Market economy. An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.
Command economy. An economic system that is controlled by a single central government.
Natural resource. A material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs.
Renewable resource. A natural resource that the environment continues to resupply or replace as it as it is used.
Nonrenewable resource. A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used.
Fossil fuel. Any one of the several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel.
Nuclear energy. A type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy.
Water power. Energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity.
Geothermal energy. Energy produced from the earth's intense interior heat.
Solar energy. Energy produced by the sun.
Primary economic activity. An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining.
Subsistence farming. Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or village.
Commercial farming. The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets.
Secondary economic activity. An economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value.
Cottage industry. A small-scale manufacturing operation using very little technology, often located in or near people's homes.
Commercial industry. A large-scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods.
Tertiary economic activity. An economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry.
Quaternary economic activity. An economic activity that focuses on the aquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research.
Export. An item that is sent out of a country for sale.
Import. An item that is brought into the country for sale.
Created by: jackfulcher



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