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ch. 3 & 4 vocabulary


Culture The way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs.
Population Density The average number of people living in a area
Birthrate The number of live births each year per 1,000 pwoplw
Immagrants A person who moves into a country
Emigrants A person who leaves a country to live elsewhere
Urbanization The growth of city population
Rural Of, or characteristics of, the countryside.
Culture Hearth A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
Cultural Convergence The contact and interaction of one culture with another
Diffusion The process by which a culture element is transmitted from one group or individual to another.
Cultural divergence The restriction of a culture from outside influences.
Sovereignty A counties freedom and power to decide on policies and actions.
Unitary System A system of government in which one one central government holds most of the political power
Federation A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
Confederation A system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government
Authoritarian Descriptive of a government in which the leaders hold all political power.
Dictatorship A system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.
Toralitarianism A system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.
Monarchy A system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch-a king, queen, shah, or sultan-whose position is usually inherited.
Democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy
Traditional Economy An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with littler surplus and exchange of goods;also known as a subsistence economy.
Market Econemy An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
Command Economy An economic system that is controlled by a single central government.
Natural resources A material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs.
Renewable Resources A natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used.
Nonrenewable Resources A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used.
Fossil Fuel Any one of the several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel.
Nuclear Energy A type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy.
Water Power Energy produced from the falling water to move machinery or generate electricity.
Geothermal Energy Energy produced from the earths intense interior heat.
Solar Energy Energy produced by the sun.
Primary Economic Activity An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining.
Substance Farming An economic system in which families produce goods and services of their own use, with little surplus and exchange of good; also known as a substance economy.
Commercial Farming The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets
Secondary Economic Activity An economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products or greater value.
Cottage Industry A small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near peoples homes
Commercial Industrty A large-scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods.
Tertiary Economic Activity A economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that that serve others; Service industry.
Quaternary Economic Activity A economic activity that focuses on acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research.
Export An item that is sent out of the country for sale.
Import An item that is brought into the country for sale.
Created by: casandra kelley