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Chapter 3&4 Vocab

TermDefinition
Culture The way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs.
Population Density the average number of people living in a given area.
Birthrate the number of live births each year per 1000 people.
Immigrant a person who moves into a country.
Emigrant a person who leaves a country to go elsewhere.
Urbanization the growth of city populations.
Rural of, or characteristics of,the countryside.
Cultural Hearth A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures.
Cultural Convergnece the contact and interaction of one culture with another.
Diffusion the process by which a cultual element is transmitted form one group or individual to another.
Cultural Divergence the restriction of a culture from outside influences.
Sovereignty a countries freedom and power to decide on policies and acions
unitary system a system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power.
federation a government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments.
confederation a system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government.
authoritarian descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power
dictatorship a system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.
totaliarianism a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.
monarchy a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch- a king queen shah or sultan- whose position is usually inherited.
democracy a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy.
traditional economy an economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use.
market economy an economic system in which decisions about production price and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
command economy an economic system that is controlled by a single central government.
Natural Resource A material in the natural environment that people value and sue to satisfy their needs
Renewable Resource A natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used.
Nonrenewable Resource A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used.
Fossil Fuel any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel.
Nuclear Energy A type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy.
Water Power Energy produced form falling water to move machinery or generate electricity.
Geothermal Energy Energy produced from the earths intense interior.
Solar Energy Energy produced by the sun.
Primary Economic Activity an economic activiyy that takes or uses natural ressources directly, such as fishing or mining.
Subsistence Farming farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village.
Commercial Farming the raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets.
Secondary Economic Activity an economic activity in which people use raw materilas to produce or maufacture new products of greater value.
Cottage Industry a small scale manufacturing operation using little technology often located in or near peoples homes
Commercial Industry a large sscale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods.
tertiary Economic Activity an economic activity in whic people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that surve others; service industry
Quaternary Economic Activity an economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research.
Export an item that is sent out of the country for sale.
Import an item that is brought into a country.
Created by: KierstenKay
 

 



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