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Chapter 3 and 4 Vocabulary

Culture The way of life that distinguishes a people, for example government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs
Population Density The average number of people living in a given area
Birthrate The number of births each year per 1,000 people
Rural Of, or characteristic of, the countryside
Culture Hearth A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
Diffusion The process by which a cultural element is transmitted from one group or individual to another
Cultural divergence The restriction of a culture from outside influences
Immigrant A person who moves into a country
Emigrant A person who leaves a country to elsewhere
Urbanization The growth of city populations
Cultural Convergence the contact and interaction of one culture with another
Sovereignty a country's freedom and power to decide on policies and actions
Unitary System a system of government in which one central government holds much of the political power
federation a government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
confederation a system of government in which individual, political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government
authoritarian descriptive of a system of government which the leaders hold all political power
dictatorship a system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person
totalitarianism a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of the society
monarchy a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch/a king, queen, shah or sultan- whos position is usually inherited
democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to chose their leaders and determine government policy
traditional economy An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy
market economy An economic system in which decisions about production, price and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.
command economy An economic system that is controlled by a central government.
Natural resource A material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
Renewable resource A natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used
Nonrenewable Resource A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used
Fossil Fuel Any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel
Nuclear energy A type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor releasing stored energy
Water power Energy produced form falling water to move machinery or generate electricity
Geothermal energy Energy produced from the earths intense inner heat
Solar energy Energy produced by the sun
Primary economic activity An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining
Subsistence farming Farming that provides only enough for the needs of each family or a village
Commercial farming The raising of crops or livestock for outside markets
Secondary economic activity An economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater use
Cottage industry A small scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often operated in or around little homes.
Commercial industry A large scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods.
Tertiary economic activity An economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials, but pursue activities that serve others; service industry
Quaternary economic activity An economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing and sharing of information, such as education or resource.
Export An item that is sent out of the country to sell.
Import An item that is brought into a country to sell.
Created by: jayceepannell



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