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Chapter 3 And 4 Vocabulary

culture the way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and belief
population density the average number of people living in a given area
birthrate the number of live births each year per 1,000 people.
immigrant a person who moves into a country
emigrant a person who leaves a country to live elsewhere
urbanilization the growth of city populations
rural of or characteristics of, the countryside.
culture hearth a place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures.
cultural convergence the contact and interaction of one culture with another
diffusion the process by which a cultural element is transmitted from one group or individual to another
cultural divergence the restriction of a culture from outside influences
sovereignty a country's freedom an power to decide on policies and actions.
unitary system a system in government in which one central government holds most of the political power
federation a government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments.
confederation a system of government in which individual political units keep the sovereignty but give limited power to a central government
authoritarian descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power
dictatorship a system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person
totalitarianism a system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society
monachry a system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch a king, queen , shah, or sultan whose position is usually inheritted
democracy a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policies
traditional economy an economic system in which families prodeuce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods
market economy an economic system in which decisions about production, price,and other economic factors an determined by the law of supply and demand
command economy an economic system that is controlled by a single central government
natural resource a material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
renewable resource a natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used
nonrenewable resource a natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used
fossil fuel any one of several of nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel
nuclear energy a type of energy produced by fission the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy
water power energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity
geothermal energy energy produced from the earth's intense interior heat
solar energy energy produced from the sun
primary economic activity an economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining
subsistence farming farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village.
commercial farming the raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets
secondary economic activity an economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of grater value
cottage industry a small-scale manufactering operation using little technology, often located near or people's homes.
commercial industry a large- scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods
tertiary economic activity an economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry
export an item that is sent out o the country for sale
import an item that is brought into the country for sale
quaternary economic an economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research
Created by: feliciataylor