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Chapter 3-4

Culture The way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs
Population Density The average number of people living in a given area
Birthrate The number of live births each year per 1,000 people.
Immmigrant A person who moves into a country
Emigrant A person who leaves a country to live somewhere else.
Urbanization The growth of city populations
Rural Of, or characteristics of,the countryside
Culture Hearth A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
Cultural Convergence The contact and interaction of one culture with another
Diffusion The process of which a cultural element is transmitted from one group or individual to another
Cultural divergence The restriction of a culture from outside influences
Sovereignty A country's freedom and power to decide on policies and actions
Unitary System A system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power
Federation A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
Confederation S system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty
Authoritarian Descriptive of a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power
Dictatorship A system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or no one person.
Totalitarianism A system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society
Monarchy A system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch- a king, queen, shah, or sultan whose position is usually inherited
Democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy
Traditional Economy An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy
Market Economy An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
Command Economy An economic system that is controlled by a single central government
Natural Resource A material in the environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs.
Renewable Resource A natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used.
Nonrenewable Resource A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used.
Fossil fuel Any one of several nonrenewable minerals resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel.
Nuclear Energy A type of energy produced by fission- the spitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy
Water Power Energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity
Geothermal energy Energy produced from the Earth's intense interior heat
Solar Energy Energy produced by the sun.
Primary economic activity An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining
Subsistence farming Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village
Commercial Farming The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets
Secondary Economic activity An economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value
Cottage Industry A small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near people's homes.
Commercial industry A large-scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods.
Tertiary economic activity An economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry
Export An item that is sent out of the country for sale.
Import An item that is brought into the country for sale.
Quaternary economic activity An economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research
Created by: LilyKilcrease



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