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Chapter 3-4 Vocab


Culture Way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs.
Population Density Average number of people living in an average area.
Birthrate Number of live births each year per 1,000 people.
Immigrant Person who moves into a country.
Emigrant Person who leaves a country to live elsewhere.
Urbanization Growth of city population.
Rural Of, or characteristics of, the countryside.
Culture Hearth Place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures.
Cultural Convergence Contact and interaction of one culture and another.
Diffusion Process by which a culture elements is transmitted from one group or individual to another.
Cultural Divergence Restriction of a culture from outside influence.
Sovereignty Country's freedom and power to deiced on policies and actions.
Unitary System System of government in which one central government holds most of the political power.
Federation Government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments.
Confederation System of government in which individual political units keep keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government.
Authoritarian Descriptive of a system of government in which leaders hold all political power.
Dictatorship System of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person.
Totalitarianism System of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society.
Monarchy System of authoritarian government headed by a monarch-a king, queen, shah, or sultan- whose position is usually inherited.
Democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government.
Traditional Economy An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy.
Market Economy Economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.
Command Economy Economic system that is control by a single central government.
Natural Resources Material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs.
Renewable Resource A natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used.
Nonrenewable resource Natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used.
Fossil Fuel Any one of several nonrenewable resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuels.
Nuclear Energy A type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy.
Water Power Energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity.
Geothermal Energy Energy produced from the earths intense interior heat.
Solar Energy Energy produced by the sun.
Primary Economic activity An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining.
Subsistence Farming Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village.
Commercial Farming Raising of crops and livestock for sail in markets.
Secondary Economic Activity Economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products for greater value.
Cottage Industry Small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often in or near people's homes.
Commercial Industry Large scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods.
Tertiary Economic Activity Economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry.
Export Item that is sent out of a country for sale.
Import Item that is brought into the country for sale.
Created by: AmmieGandy



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