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Clin Med

Cell smallest unit capable of sustaining life Chemical components organized in a self-sustaining manner
Nervous action potentials & membrane pumps
Muscular generating tension (sarcomere)
Tissue groups of cells w/ a shared purpose
Connective Support & connection (elastin)
Epithelial exchange btwn cell & surroundings (secretory glands)
Organ 2 or more types of tissues organized for fxn(s)
Orginism manifestation of the interaction of bodily systems
Cytoskeleton Cell shape
Microtubules Maintain patency (openness) Ex. nerve axon Allow asymmetric cell shape.
3 Roles of Microtubules 1. Transport of secretory vesicles (axon flow) by mc motors. 2. Give shape to cilia & flagella 3. Mitotic spindles.
2 Mc Motors 1. Kinesin 2. Dynein
Dynein Distal to prox Ex. Debris & waste for removal to cell body.
Kinesin Prox to distal
Microfilaments Smallest Most cmn: myosin & actin
2 fxn's of Microfilaments: 1. Contractile mechs 2. Enhance cell structure & stability
Actin Exs. 1. Contractile ring during cytokinesis 2. Myofibroblasts- wound closure
Intermediate-filaments Stability & Resistance to ext applied stress.
2 most important Intermed-filaments 1. Neurofilaments 2. Keratin 3. desmosomes
Epidermolysis bullosa skin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motor neuron degeneration
Endoplasmic Reticular Fxn: to make protein & lipid Rough ER (& ribosomes): synth proteins for secretion or int membr support; synth lipids for new membranes.
Smooth ER purpose: packing & discharging from ER
Golgi comples Fxn: further processing releases secretory vesicles through exocytosis
2 important steps that occur in the Golgi Complex 1. Raw mats processed into finished prod 2. Sorting finished prods to final destination
Lysosomes Sacs of hydrolytic enzymes Clean up crew digest old organelles & their wastes, prods, etc... Phagocytosis
3 types of endocytosis: 1. pinocytosis 2. phagocytosis 3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Phagocytosis lg particles pseudopods extend from membr to engulf particle
Receptor-mediated endocytosis binding signals internalization of membr
Peroxisomes Oxidative enzymes & catalase oxidize waste prods
Vaults mRNA to site of protein synth neg role in cancer- drug resistance
3 membr components: 1. Cholesterol 2. Membr proteins 3.CHO's
Fluid-mosaic model permits shape changes
Channel Membrane Proteins membrane spanning; water-sol subs only; ions; small
Carrier Molecule trans specific subs unable to pass independently through channel proteins; lg; vs. conc grad or not.
Docking marker acceptors dock & lock incoming secretory vesicles
Membr bound enzymes
Receptor proteins bind mc's for cell fxn; binding triggers event inside cell
Cell adhesion proteins hold proteins of tissues together
extra-cellular matrix (ECM) biological glue; interstitial fluid; permits diffusion btwn blood & cells
3 Major Proteins (in CHO-based gel): 1. Collagen 2. Elastin 3. Fibronectin offer structural connection from cell to cell
Collagen resists longitudinal stress (ex. skin); tensile strength resists stress
Fibronectin Connector protein (CAM)
3 specialized cell jxn's beyond the ECM: 1. Desmosomes 2. Tight jxn's 3. Gap jxn's
Desmosomes designed to hold cells together very strongly; spot rivots; in tissues subjected to stress
Gap jxns tunnels that facilitate passage or rapid comm btwn cells
Mobilization breakdwn of lipid at storage site into FFA's; stim'd by hormone sensitive lipase- release from storage for mobilization; HAL is inhibited by high insulin or high blood glucose levels
Uptake (into cell) Specific receptors for FFA on the sacrolemma (Fatty acid binding protein- FABP)
Activation occurs in cytoplasm; raises energy level of FA to prep for entry to metab; costs 2 ATP
Translocation transfer across mitochondrial membr by carnitine
Created by: MeganFultz2