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Kinesiology Test #1

Arthrology study of joint structure and function
Joint junction b/w 2 or more bones
Articulations are designed for... Mobility and stability
Synarthrosis An immovable joint held by dense CT (non-synovial)
Arthrosis a freely movable joint (synovial)
Example of suture joint Cranial bones
Example of gomphosis tooth socket
Example of syndesmosis tibia-fibula
5 characteristics of diarthrotic joints joint capsule, joint cavity, synovial fluid, synovial tissue, hyaline cartilage
Two layers surrounding the joint capsule (outside and inside) Stratum fibrosum (outside), stratum synovium (inside)
Secretion of the stratum synovium synovial fluid
Synovial fluid provides joint lubrication
Lubricin clear, lubricating fluid inside a joint
Bursa fluid filled sack that decreases friction
Uniaxial 1 DF
Biaxial 2 DF
Triaxial 3 DF
Trochoid joint (aka pivot joint) 1 DF, rotation; e.g. atlas + axis
Condyloid joint 2 DF, Convex/concave; e.g. radiocarpal joint, MCP
Saddle joint 2 DF; e.g. sternoclavicular joint
Spheroidal 3 DF, ball and socket; e.g. humeroglenoid joint
Plane joint 3 DF, like book on smooth surface; e.g. CMC joint
Ovoid joints convex/concave
Sellar joints saddle joint
Static stabilizers provide joint stability w/o moving (e.g. ligaments)
Dynamic stabilizers provide joint stability w/ motion (e.g. muscles and tendons)
What joint in the body uses only dynamic stabilizers? Scapulothoracic
Joint mechanoreceptors sense motion, stability, pain
Ruffini receptors (1) stretch receptors
Pacini receptors (2) pressure receptors
Golgi receptors (3) sense pressure and force in movement
Unmylinated receptors (4) sense mechanical stress (pain)
Free nerve endings (5) sense pain
5 types of mechanoreceptors 1 ruffini, 2 pacini, 3 golgi, 4 umylinated, 5 free nerve endings
Closed kinematic chain movement with distal limb fixed
Open kinematic chain movement with distal limb NOT fixed
Osteokinematics movement of bone shaft
Joint play how a joint moves
Roll and glide in opposite direction when joints are... Convex on concave
Roll and glide in same direction when joints are... Concave on convex
Joint mobilization typically occurs in the direction of ___ The glide
Instantaneous axis of rotation the axis of rotation changes with the motion of the joint
A joint has maximal congruity when it is... in a closed-pack position
Characteristics of closed-pack position high stability, non-contractile tissue at max stretch, least joint play
Characteristics of open-pack position (aka loose-pack position) more motion, less stability
Ginglymus (aka Hinge joint) 1 DF, uniaxial; e.g. humeroulnar joint, door hinge
Throchoid (aka pivot joint) 1 DF, uniaxial; e.g. humeroradial joint, door knob
Saddle joint 2 DF, biaxial; e.g. 1st metacarpal on trapezium
3 arthrokinematic motions roll, glide, spin
Components of synovial fluid hyaluronate, lubricin
What force correspond with the size of the moment arm? torque
In the human body, the center of mass is... anterior to S2
4 shoulder joints AC, SC, GH, Scapulothoracic (and spine, kinda)
Grade I joint mobilization vibrating capsule
Grade II joint mobilization slow, large amplitude
Grade III joint mobilization slow, large amplitude near normal limit of motion
Grade IV joint mobilization rapid, small amplitude near normal limit of motion
Charles Neer's 3 stages of healing inflammation, scar tissue, remodeling
Type of joint: MCP 2 DF, condyloid
Type of joint: IP 1 DF, hinge/ginglymous
Mallet finger avulsion -> flexion at DIP
volar relating to the palm
valgus lateral deviation of distal segment of bone (irregular joint) - knock-knee
varus medial deviation of distal segment of bone (irregular joint) - bow leg
Movement around longitudinal axis in transverse plane Rotation
kinematics motion of body w/o considering forces
kinetics effects of forces (on body)
The axis is perpendicular to... the plane of motion
3 types of motion translatory (straight), rotary, curvilinear
force push or pull that alters motion
Center of Mass (CoM) balance point of an object
Segmental center of mass two joined segments experience gravity in differing ways (e.g. kyphosis -> 2 balance points)
Crutches increase a person's... base of support
1st law of motion inertia (objects resist changes in motion)
2nd law of motion acceleration, F = m*a (force = mass x acceleration)
3rd law of motion equal opposite reaction
static friction opposing force, w/o motion
kinetic friction opposing force, w/ motion
fulcrum axis
1st class lever Axis in the middle (seesaw)
2nd class lever Resistance force in the middle (garlic press / nut cracker)
3rd class lever Effort force in the middle (arm with weight in hand)
Torque rotatory work perpendicular to the lever
Mechanical advantage results in movement, despite the effort force being smaller than the resistance force (e.g. crowbar)
5 factors affecting joint stability geometry, static stabilizers, dynamic stabilizers, compressive forces, atmospheric pressure
Created by: cbaweiss