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Koch - Psych Vocab

Fundamental Attribution Error underestimating situational influences when evaluating the behavior of someone else
Cognitive Dissonance Theory the discomfort (guilt) caused by holding two contradictory beliefs or performing an action contradictory to our beliefs causes us to change our attitude to match our actions.
Social Inhibition the presence of others diminishes quality of performance at a difficult tasks
Normative Social Influence to tasks to avoid rejection or gain social approval
Informational Social Influence accept others' opinions about reality
Group Polarization group discussion strengthens a group's dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction
Prejudice an attitude based on a prejudice
Just-World Phenomenon the belief that the world is fair so if something bad happens to a person, they must deserve it
Frustration-aggression principal the principal that frustration creates anger that leads to aggression
Determinants of Attraction proximity, physical attractiveness (average features, age in men, youth in women, etc), similarity
Altruism "unselfish regard for the welfare of others" TO HELP we must: notice, recognize, and assume responsibility
Reciprocity Norm an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
Factors that Affect Conformity (7) insecurity, the group is unanimous, lack of previous commitment, members of the group are respected, communal culture, someone is watching you, three or more people in the group
Self-serving bias the desire to protect your ego leads us to credit our success to our disposition, but our failiours to our situations
Effort Justification the tendency to find something more attractive if you have to work hard to achieve it
Social facilitation the presence of others enhance performance at a well-rehearsed or easy skill
Social Loafing the presence of others diminishes performance due to diffusion of responsibility
Groupthink members of a group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking when arriving at a discission
Discrimination acting on your prejudice
Memory Bias tendency to remember things that support our bias
Social Trap situations in which the conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behavior (tragedy of the commons)
Passionate vs. companionate love Passionate: an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another Companionate:
Bystander Effect the presence of others decreases the likelihood that we will respond, because we don't assume responsibility
Superordinate goals cooperation towards such a goal (defined as being bigger than one group) can lead to peace (cherif's boy scout study)
Factors that Affect Obedience (4) a well respected/prestigious authority, the "distance" between you and the subject, physical proximity of authority figure, lack of model of defiance to copy
FITD phenomenon the tendency for people tho agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one
Central and peripheral routes to persuasion Central:focus on content and logic of message (the argument) Peripheral: encouraged to not look at the content of the message, but at the sorce (the brand or how funny the ad is)
Deindividuation the presence of others makes on act in unrestrained ways
Stereotype over-generalized belief
Self-fulfilling prophecy the tendency to become or appear to become what someone else believes about you
Ethnocentrism tendency to judge another's group souly on the basis of your own group's values and standards
Mere Expose Effect increased exposure to something causes us to like it more
Equity and self-dsiclosure Equity:a condition in which people recieve from a relationship in proportion to what they give Self-Disclosure: revealing personal aspects of oneself to another
Social Exchange Theory true altruism doesn't exist; helpful behavior occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs
GRIT (Remember what it stands for!) (Graduated and Reciprocated Initatives in Tension-Reduction) Conflicting parties start with small conciliatory acts and gradually increase until peace is achieved (End of Cold War)
Types of Internal Conflict Approach-approach: choice must be made between two attractive choices Avoidance-avoidance: choice between two unattractive choices Approach-avoidance: a choice about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
Role-Playing subjects who play a role often being to "become" the role
Availability heuristic tendency to assume that things that come to mind quickly are more common then they are
Created by: 100000123748717
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