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Module 6 (Neck) Q&A

Anatomy of the neck

The laryngeal prominence is more commonly called... "Adam's apple"
What is the only bone in the human body that does not articulate with other bones? Hyoid bone
The thyroid gland is divided into 3 parts: R/L lobe and isthmus
The parathyroid glands are located on the __ surface of the thyroid gland posterior
The thyroid gland is deep to what muscles? Infrahyoid
The lobes of the thyroid gland are ____ to the trachea and larynx anterolateral
What are the endrocrine functions of the thyroid gland? Metabolism, growth,temperature regulation, secretion of T3 and T4
How many parathyroid glands are there? 4
What are the endocrine functions of the parathyroid glands? Regulate calcium and phospate levels
What are the three sections of the pharynx? (superior to inferior) Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
What muscles wrap around the pharynx, superficially? Constrictors
What nerve innervates the muscles of the pharynx? CN 10 (vagus nerve)
The larynx connects ___ (superior) to ____ (inferior) Pharynx, trachea
What nerve innervates the intrinsic muscles of the larynx? CN 10 (vagus nerve)
What 2 branches of the vagus nerve (CN 10) supply the larynx? Superior laryngeal branch, recurrent laryngeal nerve
Proximal to the larynx, the recurrent laryngeal nerve becomes... The inferior laryngeal nerve
What does the inferior laryngeal nerve innervate? All of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx
What condition would result from a lesion of either the recurrent laryngeal nerve or the inferior laryngeal nerve? Paralysis of vocal folds
The trachea begins inferior to what structure? Cricoid cartilage
What muscular tube is continuous with the laryngopharynx? The esophagus
The esophagus is divided into thirds; what types of muscle are found in each third? 1st third (striated; voluntary), 2nd third (smooth and striated), 3rd third (smooth; involuntary)
What nerve, if damaged, could cause a person's voice to change? Inferior laryngeal nerve (or recurrent laryngeal nerve)
What areas does the lymphatic system drain? The interstitial space b/w cells and blood vessels
Platysma (inf, sup, N, Act) Inf: fascia & skin over pectoralis major & deltoid muscles Sup: Inferior border of mandible & skin of lower face N: CN 7 – cervical branch (facial n) Act: tenses skin of neck, depresses angles of mouth, weak mandible depressor
Sternocleidomastoid (inf, sup, N, Act) Inf: sternal head – anterior manubrium clavicular head –medial 1/3 clavicle Sup: mastoid process, lateral ½ superior nuchal line of occipital bone N: CN 11 A: Unilateral- ipsilateral lat. flex. and CONTRLATERAL rotation bilateral – flexes neck
Tight SCM may cause... Head forward posture, referred pain in head (muscle tension headaches)
Ansa cervicalis innervates 3 infrahyoid muscles: Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid
Sternohyoid (inf, sup, N, Act) Inf: posterior surface of manubrium and medial clavicle Sup: body of hyoid N: ansa cervicalis A: depresses hyoid
Thyrohyoid (inf, sup, N, Act) Inf: oblique line of thyroid cartilage Sup: body and greater horn of hyoid N: (VPR) C1 via CN XII (hypoglossal nerve) A: depresses hyoid and elevates thyroid cartilage
Sternothyroid (inf, sup, N, Act) Inf: posterior manubrium of sternum Sup: oblique line of thyroid cartilage N: ansa cervicalis A: depresses the thyroid cartilage (larynx)
Omohyoid (inf, sup, N, Act) O: inferior belly - superior border scapula superior belly – intermediate tendon I: inferior belly - inferior boarder of hyoid superior belly – body of hyoid N: ansa cervicalis A: depresses, retracts and stabilizes hyoid
Mylohyoid (inf, sup, N, Act) Sup: mylohyiod line of mandible Inf: raphe and body of hyoid N: mylohyoid n (CN5) A: elevates hyoid and tongue and during speech and swallowing
Geniohyoid (inf, sup, N, Act) Sup: inferior mental spine of mandible Inf: body of hyoid N: branch of C1 via CN 12 (hypoglossal nerve) A: pulls hyoid anterosuperiorly (widens pharynx during deglutition/swallowing)
Stylohyoid (inf, sup, N, Act) Sup: Styloid process of temporal bone Inf: body of hyoid N: CN 7 (facial nerve - cervical branch) A: elevates and retracts hyoid (elongates floor of mouth)
Digastric (inf, sup, N, Act) O: Anterior belly – digastric fossa of mandible Posterior belly – mastoid notch of temporal bone I: intermediate tendon to hyoid N: Anterior belly – mylohyoid n (CN 5) Posterior belly – CN 7 A: depresses mandible, elevates hyoid
What structure passes between the middle and anterior scalenes? Brachial plexus
What are the actions of the scalenes muscles? Elevate ribs 1 and 2, flex cervical vertebrae and rotate C-spine to opposite side
Scalenus anterior attaches to... TPs of cervical spine (sup), 1st rib (inf)
Scalenus medius attaches to... TPs of cervical spine (sup), 1st rib (inf)
Scalenus posterior attaches to... TPs of cervical spine (sup), 2nd rib (inf)
Impingement of the brachial plexus between scalenus anterior and midius may lead to referred pain in... The scapular region / UE
What muscles do PTs commonly train for stability of the neck? Prevertebral muscles (deep neck flexors)
Weak or inhibited "deep neck flexors" leads to... Neck dysfunction, pain, cervical instability
Boundaries of posterior triangle... Ant: SCM Post: trapezius Inf: Clavicle
Contents of posterior triangle... (veins, arteries, nerves, muscles) Veins: EJV Ateries: transverse cervical artery, subclavian artery, suprascapular artery Nerves: brachial plexus, CN 11, cutaneous branch of CP Muscles: omohyoid (inf belly), med/post scalenes, levator scapla, splenius capitus
Floor of posterior triangle... Medial/posterior scalenes, levator scapula, splenius capitus
The subdivisions of the posterior triangle are separated by... Inferior belly of omohyoid
The 2 subdivisions of the posterior triangle are called... Occipital triangle, supraclavicular triangle
Boundaries of the anterior triangle... Lat: SCM Med: midline Sup: mandible
The occipital triangle is __ to the inf. belly of the omohyoid. Superior
The supraclavicular triangle is ___ to the inf. belly of the omohyoid Inferior
Contents of the anterior triangle... (muscles) Hyoid muscles
Submandibular triangle (aka digastric triangle) - Boarders anterior and posterior bellies of digastric m, mandible
Submandibular triangle (aka digastric triangle) - Contents *submandibular gland/duct, submandibular lymph nodes, CN 12
Carotid triangle - Boarders superior belly of omohyoid, posterior belly of digastric, anterior border of SCM
Carotid triangle - Contents CCA, ECA, IJV CN 10, 11, 12, ansa cervicalis, branches of cervical plexus Thyroid, larynx, pharynx
Muscular triangle - Boarders superior belly of omohyoid, anterior border of SCM, median plane of neck (midline)
Muscular triangle - Contents Infrahyoid muscles, thyroid and parathyroid glands
Submental triangle - Boarders Right and left anterior belly of digastric muscle, hyoid bone
Submental triangle - Contents submental lymph nodes
The phrenic nerve is __ to the anterior scalene Superficial
What are the 3 branches of the external carotid artery (ECA)? Facial, maxillary, superficial temporal
All 3 branches of ECA enter... the eye socket
EJV and cutaneous nerve are ___ to SCM superficial
IVJ is ___ to SCM and cutaneous nerve deep
Created by: cbaweiss



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