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Psychology Ch. 7

PSY 200 Ch. 7 Test

What is intelligence the all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tests, solve problems, and learn from experience
Scores on a measure related to important outcomes, we say the test has high criterion validity
If a test is given over and over, it is reliable but not valid
If a test is given overtime and produces the same results, it is reliable
What is standardization? the development of uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test and the creation of norms for the test
What is mental age individual level of mental development relative to that of others
If a mental age is higher than chronological age, the child's IQ is Above average (MA/CA)X100=IQ
What is used when asking: When does the NFL start? culturally biased
The proportional observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the group's members is heritability 50%
A gifted child has an IQ of 130 or above
Mental retardation is an IQ of below 70
Mental retardation from a genetic disorder is organic intellectual disability
If a child has an IQ of 65 because of their environment, it is cultural-familial retardation
Analyze judge, evaluate, compare, contrast analytical intelligence
Design, invent, originate, imagine creative intelligence
Real-life, scenario problem solving practical intelligence
Triarchic Theory made by Sternberg, 3 types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
Multiple intelligence made by Gardner, 9 intelligences
What is cognitive psychology? the study of mental processes, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making
What are the mental categories used to group objects, events, and characteristics? concept
Following a recipe is an example of algorithm
Heuristics and algorithms differ in terms of speed of processing
What is the advantage of using heuristics to solve a problem? speed and efficiency
What is functional fixedness? Failing to solve a problem as a result of fixation on a thing's usual functions
Forming general rules and concepts based on specific experiences or examples is inductive reasoning
A general case that we know to be true to a specific case is deductive reasoning
Reasoning is what? using established rules to draw conclusions
What is decision making? such rules are not established and we may not know the consequences of the decisions
What is confirmation bias? The tendency to search for and use information that supports one's ideas rather than refutes them
What is hindsight bias? Tendency to falsely claim that you predicted and outcome after the fact
What is availability heuristics? A prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events
What are the two processes of critical thinking? mindfulness and open-mindedness
Brain storming is an example of divergent thinking
Compare/contrast Sternberg's and Gardner's theories. Say pros and cons of each. Sternberg=3, Gardner=9, Gardner weakness=vague and difficult to test, Sternberg weakness=many question the biases
Describe characteristics of creative people. People who are constantly using their imagination, can come up with stories, or ideas of inventions. They see things and how they can create something out of them.
How does convergent thinking differ from divergent thinking? Divergent thinking produces many solutions to the same problem, convergent produces the single best solution to a problem.
Define the concept of heritability and explain how it relates to the study of intelligence. It is the proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the group's members. It can show whether intelligence can be inherited from parents or if intelligence is not genetic at all.
Created by: Imasingingal