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Ch. 3 Adv. Psycho

WSU - Fall 2013 Ch. 3 Terms

Clinical of, relating to, or conducted in or as if in a clinic: as a) involving direct observation of the patient b) based on or characterized by observable and diagnosable symptoms
Afferent conducting inward; conveying impulses toward the CNS
Efferent conducting outward from a part or organ; conveying nerve impulses to an effector
Medial extending toward, being, or occurring in the middle; lying or extending toward the median axis of the body
Lateral or or relating to the side
Orbit the bony socket of the eye
Superior situated above or anterior or dorsal to another, especially a corresponding part
Inferior situated below another, especially another similar superior part of an upright body
Sagittal of or relating to the suture between the parietal bones of the skull; of, relating to, situated in, or being the median plane of the body or any plane parallel to it
Coronal suture extending across the skull between the parietal and frontal bones
Gyri the convoluted ridge between anatomical grooves; elevations in the cortex
Sulci shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent convolutions
Dorsal relating to or situated near or on the back, especially of an animal or one of its parts; facing away from the axis of an organ or organism
Ventral of or relating to the belly; nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism
Caudal of, relating to, or being a tail; directed toward or situated in or near the tail or posterior part of the body
Distal situated away from the point of attachment or origin or a central point, especially of the body; directed away from the midline or mesial plane of the body
Proximal next to or nearest the point of attachment or origin, a central point, or the point of view; especially, located toward the center of the body
Ipsilateral situated or appearing on or affecting the same side of the body
Contralateral occurring on or acting in conjunction with a part on the opposite side of the body
-osis suffix meaning disease or condition
-itis suffix meaning disease or inflammation
Intercalate the reversible inclusion of a molecule (or group) between two other molecules (or groups)
Rostral situated toward the oral or nasal region
Anaphylactic Shock an often severe and sometimes fatal systemic reaction in a susceptible individual upon exposure to a specific antigen (e.g., wasp venom, penicillin) after previous sensitization that is characterized by respiratory symptoms, fainting, itching, and hives
Ependyma an epithelial membrane lining the ventricles of the brain and the canal of the spinal cord
Sequalae negative aftereffect, result
Action Potential momentary reversal in the potential difference across a plasma membrane (of a nerve cell or muscle fiber) that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus—also called spike potential
Synapse the place at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another
Neurotransmitters substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse, such as dopamine and serotonin
Presynaptic Neuron neuron from the axon terminal of which an electrical impulse is transmitted across a synaptic cleft to the cell body of one or more dendrites of a postsynaptic neuron by the release of a neurotransmitter
Postsynaptic Neuron neuron to the cell body or dendrite of which an electrical impulse is transmitted across a synaptic cleft by the release of a neurotransmitter from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron
Presynaptic Terminal nervous system structures located at the terminal of the axon or sometimes along its length; form junctions (synapses) with other neurons and with muscle cells
Mitochondria any of various cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes; aka chondriosome
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) energy-bearing molecule found in all living cells, obtains energy from the breakdown of food
Lock and Key Principle analogy for the specific action of an enzyme with a single substrate; only the correctly sized key (substrate) fits into the key hole (active site) of the lock (enzyme)
Glial Cells "supporting cells" of nervous system; 4 main functions: 1) surround neurons & hold in place, 2) supply nutrients & oxygen to neurons, 3) insulate one neuron from another, and 4) destroy & remove dead neurons
Astrocytes type of glial cell that provides biochemical support of endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier and play a role in the repair and scarring process of the brain and spinal cord following traumatic injuries; most abundant cell of the human brain
Oligodendrocytes type of glial cell with main functions of providing support and insulation to axons by creating the myelin sheath
Microglia type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord; act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the CNS
Meninges three membranes (dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid) that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord
Dura mater thick outermost membrane of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord
Pia mater delicate innermost layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord
Arachnoid protective membrane that cover the brain and spinal cord and is located between the two other meninges, the more superficial and much thicker dura mater and the deeper pia mater
Subarachnoid Space interval between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater, occupied by spongy tissue and intercommunicating channels in which the cerebrospinal fluid is contained
Lateral Ventricles part of ventricular system (set of structures containing CSF in the brain); largest ventricle & is identifiable by either of the two horseshoe-shaped ventricles, one in each cerebral hemisphere; communicate with the 3rd ventricle via the foramen of Monro
Interventricular Foramen the opening from each lateral ventricle into the third ventricle of the brain
Third Ventricle sends messages to & from lateral ventricles & the aqueduct of the midbrain; narrow cavity located between two lateral halves of the brain; hypothalamus & thalamus are located on the sides; abnormalities cause hydrocephalus, meningitis, and ventriculitis
Cerebral Aqueduct contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle, and is located dorsal to the pons and ventral to the cerebellum
Fourth Ventricle characteristic diamond shape in cross-sections of the human brain; located within the pons or in the upper part of the medulla; CSF entering the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct can exit to the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord
Choroid Plexus highly vascular portion of the pia mater that projects into the ventricles of the brain and is thought to secrete the CSF
Cerebral Spinal Fluid liquid secreted from the blood into the lateral ventricles of brain by the choroid plexus, circulates through ventricles to spaces between meninges, & is reabsorbed into the blood through subarachnoid sinuses; maintains pressure w/in brain & spinal cord
Cerebrum enlarged anterior/upper part of brain; the expanded anterior portion of the brain that in higher mammals overlies the rest of the brain, consists of cerebral hemispheres and connecting structures; considered to be the seat of conscious mental processes
Cerebral Cortex the convoluted surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of sensory and motor information; aka pallium
Gross Anatomy branch of anatomy that deals with the macroscopic structure of tissues and organs
White Matter neural tissue, especially of the brain and spinal cord that consists largely of myelinated nerve fibers bundled into tracts, has a whitish color, and typically underlies the gray matter
Gray Matter : neural tissue, especially of the brain and spinal cord that contains cell bodies as well as nerve fibers, has a brownish gray color, and forms most of the cortex and nuclei of the brain, the columns of the spinal cord, and the bodies of ganglia
Sulci furrow, groove; shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent convolutions
Gyri convoluted ridge between anatomical grooves
Cytoarchitecture the cellular make up of a bodily tissue or structure
Broadmann Areas one of the several structurally distinguishable and presumably functionally distinct regions into which the cortex of each cerebral hemisphere can be divided
Frontal Lobe front of cerebral hem., anterior to parietal lobe & superior & anterior to temporal lobes; separated from parietal lobe by central sulcus & temporal lobe by lateral (Sylvian) sulcus; precentral gyrus contains primary motor cortex; contains most dopamine-s
Somatosensory Strip either of two regions in the postcentral gyrus that receive and process somatosensory stimuli
Central Sulcus the sulcus separating the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex from the parietal lobe; aka fissure of Rolando
Lateral Fissure deep fissure of the lateral aspect of each cerebral hemisphere that divides the temporal from the parietal and frontal lobes; aka Sylvian Fissure
Motor Strip region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements, the main contributor to generating neural impulses that pass down to the spinal cord and control the execution of movement
Premotor Area area of motor cortex responsible for some aspects of motor control, including prep. for movement, sensory guidance of movement, spatial guidance of reaching, and/or the direct control of some movements w/ emphasis on control of proximal & trunk muscles
Associational (prefrontal areas) part of the cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement
Broca's Area brain center associated with the motor control of speech and usually located in the left inferior frontal gyrus, also part of Brodmann’s area (44)
Temporal Lobe region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemisphere, involved in the retention of visual memories, processing sensory input, comprehending language, storing new memories, emotion, and deriving meaning
Parietal Cortex part of the brain positioned superior to (above) the occipital lobe and posterior to (behind) the frontal lobe, integrates sensory information from different modalities, particularly determining spatial sense and navigation
Occipital part of the brain positioned in the posterior (back) of the brain; visual processing center of the brain
Thalamus a symmetrical structure between the cortex and midbrain; relays sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex and is involved with regulated consciousness, sleep, and alertness
Hypothalamus regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, sexual activity, goal seeking behavior, endocrine functions, affective behavior, and the activity of the visceral nervous system; functioning is central to emotional disorders
Limbic System complex set of brain structures that supports emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction
Amygdala anterior to hippocampus; receives input from cerebral cortex, olfactory structures, & hypothalamus; sends projections to hypothalamus, cortex, & thalamus; controls appetite, emo. response, & cardiovascular & visceral funct; learned fear responses/anxiety
Parahippocampal Formation consists of 3 major parts: the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper, and the subiculum; the subiculum blends laterally into the entorhinal cortex, undergoing histological changes in presubiculum; the hippocampus plays a role in learning and memory
Cingulate Gyrus immediately above the corpus callosum; receives input from thalamus and the neocortex and has a role in depression and schizophrenia as well as executive functioning and respiratory control
Septal Nuclei below corpus callosum & anterior to lamina terminalis; receives reciprocal connections from olfactory bulb, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, midbrain, habenula, cingulate gyrus, & thalamus; considered pleasure zone & plays role in reward & R+
Fimbria/Fornix in temporal lobe where it is continuous with alveus on medial surface of hippocampus; refers to thin sheet of myelinated efferents that envelop hippocampus at dentate edge; they become the fornix when they reach the caudal end of hippocampal formation
Nucleus Accumbens located in basal forebrain rostral to preoptic area; forms ventral striatum along with olfactory tubercle (part of the basal ganglia); involved with reward, pleasure, R+ learning, laughter, addiction, aggression, fear, impulsivity and the placebo effect
Dyskinesia impairment of voluntary movements resulting in fragmented or jerky motions (as in Parkinson's disease)
Dysdiadochokineasia impairment of the ability to make movements exhibiting a rapid change of motion that is caused by cerebellar dysfunction
Akinesia loss or impairment of voluntary activity (as of a muscle)
Akathisia condition characterized by uncontrollable motor restlessness
Dystonia state of disordered tonicity of tissues (as of muscle)
Acute sensing or perceiving accurately, clearly, effectively, or sensitively; having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course; lasting a short time
Tardive Dyskinesia neurological disorder characterized by involuntary uncontrollable movements especially of the mouth, tongue, trunk, and limbs and occurring especially as a side effect of prolonged use of antipsychotic drugs (e.g., phenothiazine)
Created by: nschmidt727
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