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Chapter 1 (AP)

Chapter 1: History and Approaches

TermDefinition
Empiricism the view that knowledge originates in experience
Structuralism looking inward to explore the structural elements of the human mind
Functionalism how our mental and behavioral processes function
Experimental Psychology the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
Behaviorism the study of observable behavior
Cognitive Neuroscience the study of brain activity linked with mental activity
Psychology the science of behavior and mental processes
Nature-Nurture Issue the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience
Natural Selection nature selects the traits that best enable an organism to survive
Levels of Analysis differing complementary views
Biological Psychology (Pointer Finger) the study of the chemical make up of the brain
Evolutionary Psychology (Wrist) the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
Psychodynamic Psychology (Thumb) the study of unconscious drives
Behavioral Psychology (Middle Finger) the study of learned responses based on the reinforcement of or punishment for behaviors
Cognitive Psychology (Pinky Finger) the study of all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Humanistic Psychology (Ring Finger) perspective that emphasizes feelings and emotions and better of understanding of oneself
Social-Cultural Psychology (Palm) the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
Psychometrics the study of the measurement of human abilities. attitudes, and traits
Basic Research pure science the aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Developmental Psychology the study of our changing abilities through our life span
Educational Psychology the study of influences on teaching and learning
Personality Psychology the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Social Psychology the study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Applied Research scientific study the aims to solve practical problems
Industrial-Organizational Psychology concepts and methods of optimizing human behavior in workplaces
Human Factors Psychology the study of how people and machines interact
Counseling Psychology assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being
Clinical Psychology studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry medicine dealing with psychological dosorders
William Wundt Structuralism -trained subjects in introspection -hoped to examine basic cognitive structures
William James Functionalism -wrote the first psychology textbook Principles of Psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins was denied the claim by Harvard of being psychology's first female psychology Ph.D.
Margaret Floy Washburn became psychology's first female psychology Ph.D.
G. Stanley Hall Structuralism -pioneered the study of child development
Max Wertheimer Gestalt Psychologist -argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures
Gestalt Psycholgy tried to examine a person's total experience
Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic Theory -unconscious mind
John Watson Behavioral Approach -conducted Little Albert experiment
Ivan Pavlov Behavioral Approach -conducted dog/bell experiment
B. F. Skinner Behavioral Approach -introduced the idea of reinforcement
Abraham Maslow Humanistic Approach -stressed individual choice and free will
Jean Piaget Cognitive Approach
Carl Rogers Humanistic Approach -stressed individual choice and free will
Created by: MariposaM