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M & OB ch1-5

Management & Organizational Behavioral

Management involves coordinating & overseeing the work activities of others so that activities are completed efficiently & effectively
First-line managers individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees
Middle Managers Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers
Top Managers individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions & establishing plans & goals that affect the entire organization
Mintzeberg's Managerial role: Interpersonal roles dealing with subords & people outside the organization
Mintzeberg's Managerial role: Informational role collecting, receiving, & disseminating information
Mintzeberg's Managerial role: Decisional making decisions/choices
Technical skills knowledge & proficiency in a specific field
Human skills The ability to work with other people
Conceptual skills The ability to think & conceptualize about abstract & complex situations concerning the organization
Organizational Behavior (OB) Field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, & structure have on behavior in organizations, for purpose of applying knowledge towards improving organization effectiveness
Intuition “Gut” feelings about “why I do what I do” and “what makes others tick”
Systematic Study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effect, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
Variables Any characteristic that can be measured and that changes in amplitude, intensity, or both
Dependent Variable Response that is affected by an independent variable
Independent Variable Presumed cause of change in dependent variable
Hypothesis a tentative explanation of the relationship between two or more variables
Moderating/Contingency Variable (Z) increases or decreases the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
Correlation Coefficient expresses the strength of the relationship between two variables
Case Study In depth analysis of one setting, obtained through observations, interviews &/or company or public documents
Field Survey/Correlation Study -Interested in relationship among two or more variables -Measure variables of interest with survey or interview -Analyze relationship(s) between variable of interest
Experiments Researcher manipulates (independent) variable(s) and observe its effect (dependent variable) while maintaining all other factors unchanged (CONTROL)
Causation Controlled conditions and manipulation allows researcher to infer causation between independent and dependent variable
Diversity 1.surface-level (easily observed) 2.deep-level -all the ways people (workers) differ from one another 1.demographic values 2.personality characteristics, values, beliefs, attitudes, work preferences
Deep-level Diversity: Ability Ability is an individual’s current capacity to perform various tasks in a job Two types: -Intellectual abilities -Physical abilities
Intellectual Ability abilities needed to perform mental activities—thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events
Three components of Attitude: 1.Cognitive 2.Affect 3.Behavioral 1.The opinion or belief segment of an attitude 2.The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude 3.An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated and trust org are more willing to engage in behaviors that go above and beyond the normal expectations of the job
Perceived Organization Support (POS) Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being
Job Involvement Degree to which worker psychologically identifies w/job and views performance level important to their self-worth
Psychological Empowerment Degree to which worker perceives they can influence their work environment, their competence level, meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy
Emotions caused by specific events and are short
Moods cause is often general & unclear, lasts longer
Affect Intensity how strongly people experience an emotion
Emotional Labor An employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
Emotional Dissonance Employees have to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another (I’m angry with a customer, but cannot show it)
Surface Acting (displayed emotions) Hiding one’s inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules (smiling when you don’t feel like it)
Deep Acting (felt emotions) Trying to modify one’s true inner feelings based on display rules (trying to feel empathy for a customer who is experiencing difficulties with your product or service
Emotional Intelligence Ability to: Perceive emotions in the self and others, Understand the meaning of these emotions, and Regulate one’s emotions
Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibits
Extroversion sociable, gregarious, & assertive
Agreeableness good-natured, cooperative, & trusting
Conscientiousness responsible, dependable, persistent, & organized
Emotional Stability Positive: calm, self-confident, & secure under stress Negative: nervous, depressed, & insecure under stress
Openness to Experience curious, imaginative, artistic, & sensitive
Machiavellianism A pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means
Type A Personality Aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more in less time
Hofstede's Framework 1.Power Distance 2.Individualism vs. Collectivism 3.Masculinity vs. Femininity 4.Uncertainty Avoidance 5.Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation
Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally
Individualism (1) vs. Collectivism (2) 1.The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as member of groups 2.A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them
Masculinity (1) vs. Femininity (2) 1.The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control 2.The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women, society values harmony and compassion
Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them
Long-term (1) vs. Short-term Orientation (2) 1.A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence 2.A national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here and now
Created by: NickUD
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