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Psych 202 (CNU)

Bernstein, Penner, Clark-Stewart, Roy, Ch 1-2; 11

Psychology The science of behavior and mental processes
Positive Psychology A field of research that focuses on people's positive experiences and characteristics, such as happiness, optimism, and resilience
Biological Psychologists Psychologists who analyze the biological factors influencing behavior and mental processes. Also called physiological psychologists.
Cognitive Psychologists Psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition. Also called experimental psychologists
Engineering Psychology A field in which psychologists study human factors in the use of equipment and help designers create better versions of that equipment.
Social Psychologists Psychologists who study how people influence one another's behavior and mental processes, individually and in groups.
Industrial and Organizational Psychologists Study ways to improve efficiency, productivity, and satisfaction among workers and their organizations that employ them,
Quantitative psychologists Develop and use statistical tools to analyze research data,
Sport psychologists Explore the relationships between athletic performance and such psychological variables as motivation and emotion
Forensic Psychologists Assist in jury selection, evaluate defendants' mental competence to stand trial, and deal with other issues involving psychology and the law
Environmental Psychologists Study the effects of the physical environment on behavior and mental processes
Neuroscience The scientific study of all levels of the nervous system, including neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neurology, neruophysiology, and neuropharmacology
Neuroscience/Biological perspective the approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions
Psychodynamic approcach The approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control
Cognitive perspective The approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world
Humanistic Perspective Suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop and be in control of their lives and behavior.
Structuralism Titchener (trained by Wundt); to study common experience and its structure; used experiments and introspection
Psychoanalysis Freud; to explain personality and behavior, to develop techniques for treating mental disorders; used study of individual cases
Functionalism William James; to study how the mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to the environment; used naturalistic observations of animal and human behavior
Behaviorism John B. Watson & BF Skinner; to study only observable behavior and explain behavior through learning principles; used observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral stimuli
Evolutionary Approach An approach to psychology that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes
Sociocultural factors social identity and other background factors such as gender, ethnicity, social class, and culture
Culture the accumulation of values, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious beliefs, occupational choices, and the like for a group of people who share a common language and environment
Operational Definiton A statement that defines the exact operations of methods used in research
Statistical Reliability The degree to which test results or other research evidence occurs REPEATEDLY
Statistical Validity The degree to which evidence from a test or other research method measures WHAT IT IS SUPPOSED TO MEASURE
Correlational Research two sets of variables are examined to see if they are associated, looking for relationships (positive, negative or none)
Confound In an experiment, any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
Motivation the influences that account for the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior
Motive A reason or purpose for behavior
Instinct Doctrine A view that explains human behavior as motivated by automatic, involuntary and unlearned responses
Fixed-Action Patterns Specific actions triggered by specific situations
Modal Action Patterns Tendencies to actions, modified by situations; but tendencies don't always trigger action
Drive Reduction Theory a theory of motivation stating that motivation arises from imbalances in homeostasis; primary drives - biological, secondary drives - learned requirements (like money)
Drive A psychological state of arousal created by an imbalance in homeostasis that prompts an organism to take action to restore the balance and reduce the drive
Arousal Theory People are motivated to behave in ways that maintain what is for them an optimal level of arousal
Incentive Theory Behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli
Created by: ladytimepixie