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OGT Physical Science

OGT Physical Science Power Vocab

acceleration The rate of change of velocity over time, measured in metres/second²
atoms The smallest possible piece of any pure element that still has the properties of that element. These are made of smaller particles including electrons, protons, and neutrons.
chemical change A change that results in the formation of a new substance, such as the burning of wood
Conservation of Energy a law that states that energy can not be created or destroyed only converted from one form to another
Conservation of Mass a law of physics that states that mass can not be created or destroyed
density A measure of the compactness of a substance given by the mass per unit volume (d = mass/volume). Common units of density include g/ml, g/cm^3
element A substance made up of only one kind of atom
energy A measure of being able to do work. There are many forms of energy, such as heat, mechanical, electrical, radiant, chemical, and nuclear energies. Energy is commonly measured in the unit joule (J)
force an influence that may cause a body to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull. The equation is given by F = m*a and is expressed in newtons (N)
friction the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency toward such motion of two surfaces in contact
kinetic energy The energy that a moving object has due to its motion, the energy of motion. The equation is KE = ½ * m * v and is expressed in joules (J)
Lewis Dot diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule, and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule
mass The amount of matter an object contains
momentum A quantity which is the product of the mass times the velocity of an object, p = m*v
periodic table A table in which the elements are arranged across rows in order of increasing atomic number so that elements with similar chemical properties fall in the same vertical column.
pH a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are considered acidic, while those with a pH greater than seven are considered basic (alkaline). pH 7 is defined as neutral because it is the pH of pure water
physical change a change that affects the size, shape or color of a substance but does not affect its composition
potential energy The energy that matter has because of its position or because of the arrangement of atoms or parts. Gravitational potential energy equals m*g*h (g = 9.81m/s^2)
solid the form of matter that has its own shape, a material which is not a gas or a liquid
speed the rate of motion. Distance traveled divided by the time of travel, d/t
velocity an object's speed and direction of motion
volume Space occupied by matter measured in milliliters or liters, V = mass/density
wave a movement which transmits energy from one point to another without physically transporting the quantity. A wave is characterized by wavelength and frequency.
atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
chemical reaction A process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form or a nuclear reaction.
compound A substance formed from two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions
condensation The conversion of a substance (such as water) from the vapor state to a denser liquid or solid state usually initiated by a reduction in the temperature of the vapor
conduction Process by which heat or electricity is transmitted through a material or body without movement of the medium itself.
covalent Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
electron A stable subatomic particle with negative electrical charge, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids
endothermic Characterized by or formed with absorption of heat
exothermic Characterized by or formed with liberation of heat
gravity The gravitational attraction of the mass of the Earth, the moon or a planet for bodies at or near its surface.
ion An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons
isotope Any of two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and nearly identical chemical behavior, but with differing atomic mass or mass number and different physical properties.
neutrons An uncharged elementary particle that has a mass nearly equal to that of the proton and is present in atomic nuclei
nucleus The positively charged central portion of an atom that comprises nearly all of the atomic mass and that consists of protons and neutrons
proton A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei with a positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron
total energy potential energy plus kinetic energy
weight the effect of gravity on an object's mass
ionic a type of bond in which electrons are passed from one atom to another
renewable an energy source which does not deplete in quantity when used (solar, wind, geothermal)
non-renewable an energy source which depletes in quantity when used (fosill fuels, nuclear)

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