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Digital Imaging 4

Module 4: Image Analysis

The radiographic density of a lumbar spine radiograph is too low. What are the possible causes of this image to have insufficient density? 1)Decreased kVp; 2)Insufficient mAs; 3)Slower than expected speed receptor; 4)Less processing time; 5)Developer temp too low; 6)Decreased chemical concentration
Blurred images are caused by what? Motion or changes in geometric factors during image production.
What is the predominate cause of blur in radiographic images? Motion
When blur is caused by geometric factors what is the best way to assess these factors? Using specific test phantoms
Gross overexposure involves the use of excessive ____________. Radiation
Excessive Radiation is defined as: More than 3 to 4 times the level of radiation needed to produce a diagnostic quality image
This kind of error is caused by a computer's inability to identify the edges of collimation: Exposure Field Recognition Error
Exposure Field Recognition Errors can cause a _______________ error during the ___________ analysis because the ___________ ____________ weren't recognized and all of the data on the PSP plate were included in the values distribution. Rescaling; Histogram; Field Borders
Improper alignment of a radiographic grid in Digital Imaging can lead to __________ __________. Grid Cutoff
Selecting the incorrect histogram model for analysis can cause the _________ _____ _________ to display incorrect ___________ and __________. Look Up Table; Brightness and Contrast
Grid Cutoff will reduce the demonstrated ______________ of the image regardless of the receptor used. Contrast
Scatter radiation is especially hard to interpret during histogram analysis when it occurs where? Outside the collimated borders (computer won't recognize the exposure field borders and will include the scatter in the histogram)
Improper brightness in a digital image can be caused by (give 3) 1)Scatter Radiation; 2)Unrecognized exposure field borders; 3)Overexposure
When the exposure absorbed by the Image Receptor surpasses the level the receptor can respond to what happens? Reaches a Saturation Point and all pixels values are raised to their maximum level
Most image blur is caused by ___________ _________. Patient Motion
_________ and ________ are responsible for image Size distortion because they affect the distance between the ___________ of interest and the ___________ _________. SID and OID; Object of interest and the image receptor
Shape distortion is caused by a change in the ____________ relationship between the ________, the __________ and the __________ ___________. Angular; Tube; Part; Image Receptor
The size of the image receptor affects the size of the __________ __________ but should not be confused with magnification of the image by changes in _________ and _________. Image display; SID and OID
Noise in a digital image can be caused by what 3 things? 1)Insufficient Signal Strength; 2)Excessive Scatter; 3)Excessive Fog
Quantum noise in digital images is caused by __________ ___________ ________. Insufficient Signal Strength
_________ _________ _________ is sometimes used as an indicator of exposure and is an actual measure of patient dose and depends on ____________ factor and ________ size. Dose Area Product (DAP); Exposure; Field
The accuracy of the Exposure indicator is influenced by __________ ___________ recognition along with unexpected structures in the __________ ___________. Exposure Field; Exposure Field
A chest radiograph was produced using an appropriate kVp and mAs value, if a lead apron was included in the exposure field there would be an error in the ___________ ____________. Histogram Analysis
If a lead apron is included in the exposure field a priori histogram analysis would produce an extra ________ at the ________-__________ area of the histogram and a miscalculation would suggest a gross ___________. Peak; Low-Intensity; Underexposure
Recording multiple images on a single receptor can cause ___________ and ___________ areas as well as _____________ exposure fields in the center. Underexposed; Overexposed; Overlapping
The current recommendation is to record ____ image per receptor to avoid __________ _________ errors. 1; Data analysis
Most Digital Artifacts appear ___________. Bright
Cassette-Based PSP artifacts occur because each time a cassette is processed the plate reader moves the _________ _________ in and out of the cassette which can cause dust and dirt to get in the cassette. PSP Plate
The PSP plate in a cassette-based image receptor can get _________ or __________ during processing which can cause artifacts. The chemicals used to clean the plate can also _________ the cassette. Scratched or Bent; Stain
Since Cassette-Less imaging systems are sealed, ________ and ________ are less likely to cause artifacts. Dust and Dirt
Cassette-Less artifacts can occur because of malfunction of a single ________ or multiple rows of _________. DEL; DELs
The major source of artifacts in Cassette-Less Systems are _________. (However artifacts can also be caused by _______, _______, __________ and staining. DELs; Dust; Dirt; Bending
If an artifact does not run along the entire axis and does not appear on every image it is most likely a __________ Artifact. Plate Artifact
If an Artifact runs along the entire axis and appears on every image it most likely a ________________ Artifact. Processing Artifact
A line running the entire length of the plate and parallel to the direction the plate traveled through the reader is most likely an artifact caused by a dirty __________ ________ in the plate ____________. Light Guide in the plate Reader
A dirty light guide will cause dirt to block the plate's _________ through the light guide to the ________________ tube and to the ______. Signal; Photomultiplier; ADC
A Wavy appearance that runs across the entire plate is an artifact caused because the ___________ or ___________ was disturbed when the ____________ was being read or processed. Laser; Plate; Plate
The Wavy appearance that runs across the entire image caused because the laser or plate was disturbed during processing is considered a ____________ artifact. Processing Artifact
Created by: foster1317