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Ch. 4 Holt

Atoms and the Periodic Table

TermDefinition
nucleus an atoms central region which is made up of protons and neutrons
proton a sub atomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the neucleus of an atom
neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the neucleus of an atom
electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
orbital a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
periodic law the law that states that the reapeting chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements
period a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
group (family) a verticle column of elements in the periodic table
ion an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
atomic the number the number of protons in the neucleus of an atom
mass number the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the necleusof an atom
isotopes an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element but that has a diffrent number of neutrons
atomic mass unit (amu) a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule;it is exactly one twelfth of the mass of a carbon atom with the mass number 12
average atomic mass the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occuring iscotopes of an element
metal an element that is shiny and conducts heat and electricity well
nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
semiconductor an element or compound that conducts electric current better than an insulator, but not as well as a conductor does
alkali metal one of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table
alkaline-earth metal one of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table
transition metal one of the elements of Group 3-12 of the periodic table
halogen one of the elements of Group 17 of the periodic table
noble gas an unreactive element of Group 18 of the periodic table.
mole the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in 12g of carbon-12
Avogadro's constant equals 6.02x10(23)/mol; the number of particles in 1 mol
molar mass the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance
conversion factors a ratio that is derived from the equality of two different units and that can be used to convert from one unit to another
valence electron an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
Created by: haasem