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mood disorders

chapter 16 mood disorders

pathological depression occurs when adaptation is ineffective
Definition of Mood A pervasive and sustained emotion that may have a major influence on a person's perception of the world.
Discription of Mania An alteration in mood that is expressed by feelings of elation, inflated self esteem, grandiosity, hyperactivity, agitation and accelerated thinking
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. That has existed for at least 2 weeks, and no history of manic behavior.
Premenstural dysphoric disorder features markedly depressed mood, excessive anxiety, mood swings, and decreased interest in activity dduring the week prior to menses.
When diagnosing children or adolescents with major depressive disorder look for these symptoms irritable mood, failure to make expected with gains
Bipolar disorder is characterized by mood swings and profound depression to extreme euphoria with intervening periods of normalcy.
A milder representation of the clinical symptoms of bipolar disorder is called Hypomania
Hypomania is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to require hospitalization. Does not include psychotic features.
To be diagnosed with bipolar disorder patient must have a history of... one or more manic episodes.
what is the essential feature of cyclothymic disorder chronic mood disturbance of at least 2 year duration, involving numerous episodes of hypomania and depressed mood of insufficient severity.
Hippocampus memory impairments, feelings of wothlesness, hopelessness and guilt
Amygdala Anhedonia, anxiety, reduced motivation
Hypothalamus Increased or decreased sleep and appetite, decreased energy and libido
frontoal cortex depressed mood, problems concentrating
Cerebellum psychomotor retardation/agitation
all medications that increase serotonin and norepinephrine can improve the emotional and vegetative symptoms of depression
medications that can improve emotional symptoms of depression block the presynaptic reuptake of the neurotransmitters or block receptors at nerve endings. (TCAz;SSRIs; MAOIs)
Blockade of serotonin reuptake results in side effects of GI disturbances, increased agitation, and sexual dysfunction.
TCA's and tetracyclic drugs imipramine,amitriptyline, mirtazapine
Imipramine,amityriptyine,mirtazapine TCA's and Tricylic drugs block reuptake for serotonergic, noradrenergic, anticholinergic, and histamine
bupropion, venlafaxine and duloxetine block serotonin and NE reuptake and also are weak inhibitors of dopamine.
blockade of NE reuptake results in side effects tremors, cardiac arrhythmias, sexual dysfunction, and hypertension.
blockade of dopamine reuptake results in side effects psychomotor activation
blockade of acetylcholine reuptake results in side effects dry mouth,blurred vision, constipation, and urinary retention
blockade of histamine reuptake results in side effects sedation and hypotension
the most common psychiatric disorder of the elderly Senescence
ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy) Effective treatment in major depression in the elderly
ECT used in elderly whom has acute suicidal risk or unable to tolerate antidepressant medications.
some side effects of TCAs Lowers seizure threshold, wieght gain and sexual dysfunction
TCAs are absolutely contraindicated in cases of severe heart disease and untreated narrow-angle glaucoma
2 hours after ingestion of a food or drug high in tyramine severe occipital and or temporal pounding HA with occasional photophobia, sense of choking, neck stiffness and feeling of dread
SNRIs medications venlafaxine (Effexor) duloxetine(Cymbalta) have fewer anticholinergic and cardio side effects
All antidepressants carry what black box warnings for what increased risk of suicidality in children and adolescents
Created by: Booschick
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