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Fall 2013

Anamnesis [Gr. anamnesis = a recalling] medical or psychiatric patient history, as opposed to catamnesis, a follow-up
Craniocerebral [Gr. kranion = skull, L. cerebrum = the brain] involving both the cranium and the brain
Endocrinopathies [Gr. endon = within, krinein = to secrete, pathos = disease] a disorder in the function of an endocrine gland
Hypothyroidism [Gr. hypo = under, thyreoiedes = shield-shaped, isma = forming nouns of action, state, condition, doctrine] deficient activity of the thyroid gland
Hypertension [Gr. hyper = over, above, beyond, exceedingly, L. tensionem = a stretching] abnormally high blood pressure and especially arterial blood pressure
Hypotension [Gr. hypo = under, L. tensionem = a stretching] abnormally low blood pressure
Addison's Disease a destructive disease marked by deficient adrenocortical secretion and characterized by extreme weakness, loss of weight, low blood pressure, gastrointestinal disturbances, and brownish pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes
Corticosteriod [L. cortex = bark of a tree, Gr. steros = solid, stiff] any of various adrenal-cortex steroids used medically especially as anti-inflammatory agents
Tricyclic Antidepressants L. tres = 3, Gr. kyklikos = moving in a circle, Gr. anti = against, opposed to, L. depressare = press down, L. antem = agent] any of a group of antidepressant drugs that contain 3 fused benzene rings, potentiate the action of catecholamines by inhibiting
Lithium [Gr. lithos = stone] a crystalline salt used in the glass and ceramic industries and in medicine especially in the treatment of bipolar disorder
Anticonvulsants [Gr. anti = against, opposed to, L. convulses = to pull away, to weaken, destroy] used or tending to control or to prevent convulsions
Perinatal [Gr. peri =around, about, beyond, L. natalis = pertaining to birth or origin] occurring in, concerned with, or being in the period around the time of birth
Object Constancy [L. objectum = thing put before, Fr. constance = steadfastness, permanence] ability to perceive an object as unchanging even under different conditions of observation
Amobarbital [Gr. amylon = fine meal, starch, Gm. chloral = presence of an aldehyde group] a barbiturate used as a hypnotic and sedative
Vaginismus [L. vagina = sheath, scabbard, isma = forming nouns of action, state, condition, doctrine] a painful spasmodic contraction of the vagina
Mental Status Exam a structured way of observing and describing a patient’s current state of mind, under the domains of appearance, attitude, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought process, thought content, perception, cognition, insight, & judgment
Dysprosody [Gr. dys = bad Gr. prosoidia = accent, song sung to music] markedly abnormal expression in the emotional and tonal aspects of speech, such as inflection and emphasis, or an inability to interpret & comprehend these aspects in the speech of others
Echopraxia [Gr. echo = sound, L. praxis = practice, exercise, action] pathological repetition of the actions of other people as if echoing them
Mood [Gm. mod = emotional condition, frame of mind] a conscious state of mind or predominant emotion: affective states
Mood Congruent [Gm. mod = emotional condition, frame of mind, L. congruentem = agreeing, fit, suitable] content consistent with the current circumstances or mood of a patient
Mood Incongruent [Gm. mod = emotional condition, frame of mind, L. in = not, L. congruentem = agreeing, fit, suitable] content inappropriate to a patient’s current circumstances or mood.
Affect [L. affectus = furnished, supplied, endowed “figuratively” disposed, constituted, inclined] the conscious subjective aspect of an emotion considered apart from bodily changes
Flat Affect [Old German flaz = level + Latin affectus = furnished, supplied, later meaning mental state]: Blunted affect is the scientific term describing a lack of emotional reactivity on the part of an individual
Inappropriate Affect [L. in = not, L. appropriatus = specially suitable, proper, L. affectus = furnished, supplied, endowed “figuratively” disposed, constituted, inclined] an emotional expression disharmonious in quality or intensity w/ person, event, or idea that provoked it
Hypnagogic Hallucinations • Hypnagogic hallucinations: [Greek hypnos = sleep + Greek agogos = leading + Latin hallucinatus = wander in the mind, talk unreasonably, ramble in thought]: Hallucination occurring while falling asleep, normally not considered pathological.
Hypnopompic Hallucinations Greek hypnos = sleep + Greek pompe = leading away+ Latin hallucinatus = wander in the mind, talk unreasonably, ramble in thought Hallucination occurring while awakening from sleep, not ordinarily considered pathological.
Depersonalization [Latin de = down, down from, off + Latin personalis = pertaining to a person]: Sensation of unreality concerning oneself, parts of oneself, or one’s environment that occurs under extreme stress or fatigue
Derealization [Latin de = down, down from, off + French realiser = make real + Latin ionem = indicates state or condition]: Sensation of changes reality or that one’s surrounding have been somehow altered. Seen in schizophrenia, panic attacks, & dissociative disorders
Formication [Latin formicationem = to crawl like ants]: Tactile hallucinations involving the sensation that tiny insects are crawling over the skin. Seen in cocaine addiction and delirium tremens.
Thought Content [Old English poht or gepoht = to conceive of in the mind or consider + Latin contentum = contained]: Reveals how connected, coherent, and logical the patient's thoughts are.
Process of form of thought French proces = prepare by special process + Old English poht or gepoht = to conceive of in the mind or consider]: Thinking: the process of using your mind to consider something carefully.
Circumstantiality [Latin circumstantial = surrounding]: Disturbance in the associative thought and speech processes in which a patient digresses into unnecessary details and inappropriate thoughts
Clang Associations o Clang associations: [Latin clangere = resound, ring]: Association or speech directed by the sound of a word rather than by the meaning itself, words have no logical connection, punning and rhyming may dominate verbal behavior.
Derailment [French derailler = to go off the rails]: Gradual or sudden deviation in train of thought without blocking. Occasionally, used synonymously with loosening of association
Flight of Ideas [Old English flyht = flying, flight + Greek idea = ideal prototype]: Rapid succession of fragmentary thoughts or speech in which content changes abruptly and speech may be incoherent.
Neologisms [neo = new + Greek logos = word]: New word or phrase whose derivation cannot be understood, often observed in schizophrenia.
Perseveration (1) pathological repetition of the same response to different stimuli, as in a repetition of the same verbal response to different questions. (2) Persistent repetition of specific words or concepts in the process of speaking
Tangentialty [Latin tangentem = touching]: Digressive, and in some instances, irrelevant, manner of speech, where the central idea is not communicated effectively.
Thought Blocking [Old English poht or gepoht = to conceive of in the mind or consider + Old French bloc = block of wood]: Abrupt interruption in train of thinking before a thought or idea is finished.
Delusions [Latin delusionem = deceiving]: False belief, based on incorrect inference about external reality
Ideas of Reference [Greek idea = ideal prototype + Latin referre = to relate]:Misinterpretation of incidents and events in the outside world as having a direct personal reference to oneself.
Ideas of Influence A clinical manifestation of certain psychotic disorders in which the patients may believe that their thoughts are read, that their limbs move without their consent, or that they are under the control of someone else or some external force or influence
Hallucinations [Latin hallucinatus = wander in the mind, talk unreasonably, ramble in thought]: An experience involving the apparent perception of something not present.
Sensorium [Latin sensorium = to feel, to perceive]: Hypothetical sensory center in the brain that is involved with clarity of awareness about oneself and one’s surrounding.
Obtunding [Latin obtundere = to blunt or make dull]: To make less intense, to dull, or deaden. To make blunt.
Somnolence [Latin somnolentia = sleepiness]: Pathological sleepiness or drowsiness from which one can be aroused from a normal state of consciousness.
Orientation times 3 State of awareness of oneself and one’s surroundings in terms of person (1), place (2), and time (3).
Memory Process whereby what is experienced or learned is established as a record in the CNS (registration), where it persists with a variable degree of permanence (retention) and can be recollected or retrieved from storage at will (recall).
Immediate Memory [from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" + mediatus, past participle of mediare "to halve," later, "be in the middle," from Latin medius "middle"]: Reproduction, recognition, or recall of perceived material within seconds after presentation.
Recent Memory [from Latin recentem (nominative recens) "lately done or made, new, fresh, young," from re- + PIE root *ken- "fresh, new, young"]: Recall of events over the past few days.
Recent Past Memory [from past participle of passen "go by"]: Recall of events over the past few months.
Remote Memory Recall of events from the distant past.
Memory loss vs. Depression “Rx to loss of memory gives clues to underlying disorders & coping mech. PT w/ memory impairment but is depressed is > concerned about memory loss than someone w/ memory loss secondary to dementia” (p. 235). 50-75% of depressed are cognitively impaired (d
Confabulation Unconscious filling of gaps in memory by imagining experiences or events that have no basis in fact, commonly seen in amnestic syndromes; should be differentiated from lying.
Serial 7s & Serial 3s Clinical tests used to test mental function; i.e to help assess mental status after possible head injury or in suspected cases of dementia. Was adopted as part of the mini-mental state examination. Used as a quick and easy test of concentration and memory
Spell word backwards A mental status test to assess the patient’s attention and working memory. Often uses a common, five-letter word such as “HOUSE” or “WORLD.”
Amnesia Partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be organic (amnestic disorder) or emotional (dissociative amnesia) in origin.
Catastrophic reaction emotional outbursts, sometimes accompanied by physical acting-out behavior, that seem inappropriate or out of proportion to the situation. The reaction may be triggered by a present event or by one from the distant past”
6 levels of insight Ability to understand the objective reality of a situation; awareness and understanding about being ill. (complete denial; slight awareness of being sick and needing help, but denying it at the same time; Awareness of being sick but blaming it on others,
la belle indifference Inappropriate attitude of calm or lack of concern about one’s disability. May be seen in patients with conversion disorder.
Psychosis Mental disorder in which thoughts, affective response, ability to recognize reality, & ability to communicate & relate to others are sufficiently impaired to interfere w/ the capacity to deal with reality; impaired reality testing, hallucinations, delusio
Prodrome [from Greek prodromos "a running forward, a sally, sudden attack," from pro- "forward" + dromos "a running"]: An early symptom indicating the onset of a disease or illness.
Countertransference fear Response to the psychopathic patient as a predator; may be viscerally felt as ‘the hair standing up on my neck.’ These are phylogenetically old autonomic reactions that may also signal real danger, even in the absence of an overt threat.
Transference The process by which emotions and desires originally associated with one person, such as a parent or sibling, are unconsciously shifted to another person, especially to the analyst.
Factitious Disorder A condition in which a person acts as if he or she has an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms.
Ascultate To listen for sounds within the body, chiefly to ascertain the condition of the thoracic or abdominal viscera and to detect pregnancy; it may be performed with the unaided ear (direct or immediate a.) or with a stethoscope (mediate a.).
Hypothyroidism underactive thyroid; thyroid gland fails to produce or secrete as much thyroxine (T4) as the body needs to regulate heart rate, digestion, physical growth, and mental development; slows life-sustaining processes, & damage organs
Psychotropic drugs A chemical substance that crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in changes in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, and behavior.
Proprietary drugs A brand-name drug; a drug that has a trade name and is protected by a patent (can be produced and sold only by the company holding the patent).
Anticholinergic (Chiefly of a drug) inhibiting the physiological action of acetylcholine, esp. as a neurotransmitter.
Viscera [from Latin viscera, plural of viscus "internal organ," of unknown origin.]: The internal organs in the main cavities of the body, esp. those in the abdomen, e.g., the intestines.
Digitalis A drug prepared from the dried leaves of foxglove and containing substances (notably digoxin and digitoxin) that stimulate the heart muscle.
Digitalis Intoxication Too much digitalis in the blood. More vulnerable to this while on diuretics because of low K+ levels. Common symptoms: confusion, irregular pulse, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, and vision changes
Lead A metal. Lead poisoning is chronic intoxication that is produced by the absorption of lead into the system and is characterized by fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, anemia, a dark line along the gums, and muscular paralysis or weakness of limbs.
Diuresis Increased or excessive production of urine
Diaphoresis [from Greek dia + pherein, to carry]: Sweating, esp. to an unusual degree as a symptom of disease or a side effect of a drug.
Anticholinergic Delirium [Latin delirium "madness," literally "go off the furrow,"]: Anticholinergic delirium is the only form of delirium for which specific pharmacotherapy is available -- cholinesterase inhibitors.
Temporal Arteritis Inflammation of the temporal arteries; characterized by headaches and difficulty chewing and (sometimes) visual impairment.
Subdural Hematoma "]: A form of traumatic brain injury in which blood gathers within the outermost meningeal layer, between the dura mater, which adheres to the skull, and the arachnoid mater.
Hematoma a solid swelling of clotted blood within the tissues.
Extrapyramidal Relating to or denoting nerves concerned with motor activity that descend from the cortex to the spine and are not part of the pyramidal system.
Subarachnoid Hematoma Bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
Hydrocephalus A condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, typically in young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage.
Diplopia [from Greek diploos, double + ōps (generally ōpos); akin to ops, "eye"]: A disorder of vision in which two images of a single object are seen (as from unequal action of the eye muscles)—called also double vision.
Tinnitus from Latin tinnitus, from tinnire "to ring, tinkle"]: Ringing or buzzing in the ears.
Glossitis [from Greek gloss “tongue” + itis “inflammation”]: Inflammation of the tongue.
Tardive Dyskinesia Tardive dyskinesia is a mostly irreversible neurological disorder of involuntary movements caused by long-term use of antipsychotic or neuroleptic drugs.
Aphonia Loss of ability to speak through disease of or damage to the larynx or mouth.
Thioridazine (Mellaril) [Greek thio = sulfur + rid = to remove + azo = life]: a tranquilizer used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
Pleurisy [Gr. pleurisis = side]: inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
Hemoptysis [Greek hemo- = blood + ptysis = act of spitting]: spitting of blood that originated in the lungs or bronchial tubes
Dyspnea [Greek dys = bad + pnoia = breath]: difficulty breathing
Orthopnea an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably. It occurs in many disorders of the cardiac and respiratory systems, such as asthma, pulmonary edema, emphysema, pneumonia, congestive heart failure
Carpopedal relating to the wrist and the foot, or the hands and the feet
Tachycardia Greek takhus = swift + Greek kardia = heart]: a rapid resting heart rate
Pheochromocytoma a vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia, characterized by hypersecretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, causing persistent or intermittent hypertension.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) [Greek mono = single + amine = ammonia, oxyde = oxide, ase = separation, inhibere = to forbid]: any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate
Hypertensive Crisis [Greek hyper = above + tendere = to stretch + krisi = turning point]: a sudden, severe increase in blood pressure to a level exceeding 200/120 mm Hg
Hyperphagia [Greek hyper = above, phagia = eating] pathologically insatiable hunger
Polyphagia [Greek poly =many + phagein = to eat]: eating to excess
Polyuria [Greek poly = many + ouron = urine]: the excretion of an abnormally large quantity of urine
Polydipsia [Greek poly = many + dipsa = thirst + -ia = condition of]: excessive thirst
nocturia a frequent need to arise during the night to urinate
lithium toxicity [Greek lithia = oxide of lithium + toxicus= poisonous] toxic effects from taking too much lithium. Effects include nausea, emesis, diarrhea, asthenia, ataxia, confusion, lethargy, polyuria, seizures and coma
Retrograde Ejaculation : [Greek retrogrades = going backward + ejaculari = to throw out from]: when semen is redirected to the urinary bladder instead of through the urethra as would occur during normal ejaculation
Dysmenorrhea [Greek dys = bad, unfortunate + men = month + rhoia = flowing]: painful menstruation
Amenorrhea [Greek a = negative + men = month + rhoia = flow]: absence of menstruation
Pseudodocyesis [Latin pseudo = false + cyesis = pregnancy]: a psychosomatic state marked by some of the hormonal balances and physical symptoms of pregnancy (e.g., cessation of menses, abdomen growth, apparent fetal movements) in the absence of conception
Myomata [Greek myo = muscle + oma = tumor] a benign tumor of muscular tissue, generally associated with a tumor in the uterus
Ataxia [Greek a = without + taxis = arrangement]: loss of coordination of the muscles, esp. extremeties
spinocerebellar degeneration [Latin spina = spine + cerebellum= small brain + degenerare = deteriorate]: a progressive and genetic disease that is marked by a loss of muscle coordination from damage to the cerebellum (aka spinocerebellar ataxia [SCA])
Myotonic Dystrophy [Greek myo = muscle + tonic = tone + dus = bad + trophia = nourishment]: A severe form of muscular dystrophy marked by generalized weakness and muscular wasting that first affects the extremities then progresses to other areas
Parkinson's Disease [named for English physician James Parkinson]: a neurological disease marked by tremors, muscle rigidity, shuffling gait, slow speech, and mask-like facial expression; believed to be caused by a deterioration of dopamine brain cells
Chorea [Gr. khoreia = dance; circling motion]: Any of the various diseases of the nervous system characterized by involuntary muscular movements of the face and extremities
Klinefelter's Syndrome syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes, long legs, enlarged breasts, reduced sperm production, and mental retardation; a genetic defect in which an extra X chromosome (XXY) is present.
Acromegaly [Gr. akron = tip, extremity + megas = large]: A chronic disease marked by enlargement of the bones of the extremities, face, & jaw; caused by over-excitability of pituitary gland
Carcinomatosis [Latin carcĭnōma = a cancerous ulcer + osis = disease]: the widespread presence of carcinomas that have metastasized throughout the body
Facies [Latin facies = do, make]: the appearance or expression of the face, especially when typical of a certain disease
Truncal Obesity [Latin truncus = trunk + obesus = fat]: fat deposited in the thorax & abdomen, rather than the hips and thighs
Cushing's Disease a glandular disorder caused by excessive ACTH (stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol) resulting in greater than normal functioning of the adrenal gland; characterized by obesity
Pickwickian Syndrome a respiratory and circulatory disease associated with extreme obesity, such as sleep apnea
Exophthalmos [Greek ex- = outside + opthalmos = eye]: having prominent eyes
Porphyria this [Greek porphyros = purple ]: a group of disorders of porphyrin metabolism, characterized by large amounts of porphyrins in the blood and urine
Systemic Lupis Erythematosis (SLE) chronic autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ system; the immune system attacks part of the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage
tuberous sclerosis hardening with adenoma sebaceum Rare multi-system genetic disease causes non-malignant tumors to grow in the brain & on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. A rash of reddish spots or bumps, which appear on the nose & cheeks in a butterfly distribution
Created by: nschmidt727