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process by which an unstable nucleus emits one or more particles and/or energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation radioactivity
charged particles or energy emitted by an unstable nucleus nuclear radiation
type of radiation composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons alpha particle
type of radiation that is an electron beta particle
type of radiation that is a form of electromagnetic wave gamma ray
type of radiation have a positive electric charge alpha particle
type of radiation have a negative charge beta
most massive form of radiation alpha particle
form of radiation stopped by a piece of paper alpha radiation
type of radiation stopped by a sheet of aluminium foil beta particle
type of radiation that requires a thick peice of lead to stop gamma ray
most dangersous form of radiation gamma ray
a nucleus gives up two protons and two neutrons during alpha decay
a nucleus gains a proton and loses a neutron during beta decay
the time required for half a sample of radioactive nuclei to decay half-life
the interaction that binds protons and neutrons together in a nucleus strong nuclear force
the process by which a nucleus splits into two or more smaller fragments, releasing neutrons and energy fission
the scientist who proposed that mass and energy are equivalent to each other albert einstein
a series of fission processes in which the neutrons emitted by a dividing nucleus causes the division of other nuclie nuclear chain reaction
the minimum mass of a fissionable isotope in which a nuclear chain reaction can occur critical mass
the process in which light nuclei combine at extremely high temperatures, forming heavier nuclei and releasing energy fusion
the scientist who discovered radioactivity henri becquerl
nuclear radiation can cause genetic mutations
a major problem with the use of nuclear fusion for energy is the storing of the radioactive waste products
a change in the appearance of a substance; no new substance is formed physical change
a change in which the original substance is changed into a new substance; atoms remain the same chemical change
a change in which the number of protons and/or neutrons in an atom is altered nuclear change
charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes nuclear radiation
positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons (the same as helium nucleus) alpha particle
Alpha particles are the _________ penetrating type of nuclear radiation least
the time required for one half of a sample of radioisotope to decay half-life
The greater the number of protons in a nucleus the greater is the __________e that repels those protons electric force
the attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus. strong force
Over very__________ the strong nuclear force is much great than the electric forces among protons. short distances
All nuclei with more than __________protons are radioactive eighty three
In nuclear fission, tremendous amounts of ______ can be produced from very small amounts of mass. energy
minimum amount of a substance that can sustain a chain reaction. critical mass
Fusion requires extremely _________ temperature
state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons plasma
Nuclear power plants produce ____________that must be isolated and stored so that it does not harm people or the environment. radioactive waste
the core of the reactor melts and radioactive material may be released meltdown