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Testing & Individual

*BLHS Testing and Individual Differences

(measurement psychologists)focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data; measure mental traits, abilities, and processes Psychometricians
ideas that help summarize a group of related phenomena or objects; they are hypothetical abstractions related to behavior and defined by groups of objects or events EX:happiness, honesty, intelligence Construct
two-part test development procedure that first establishes test norms from the test results of the large representative sample who initially took the test, then assures that the test is both administered and scored uniformly for all test takers Standardization
scores established from the test results of the representative sample, which are then used as a standard for assessing the performances of subsequent test takers Norms
same exam is administered to the same group on two different occasions and the scores compared test-retest method
the score on one half of the questions is correlated with the score on the other half of the questions to see if they are consistent Ex: compare number of even and odd answers that are correct split-half method
two different versions of a test on the same material are given to the same test takers, and the scores are correlated alternate form method/equivalent form method
the extent to which two or more scorers evaluate the responses in the same way interrater reliability
extent to which an instrument accurately measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure or predict validity
measure of the extent to which the content of the test measure all of the knowledge or skills that are supposed to be included within the domain being tested, according to the test takers face validity
measure of the extent to which the content of the test measures all of the knowledge or skills that are supposed to be included within the domain being test, according to expert judges content validity
measure of the extent to which a test's results correlate with other accepted measures of what is being tested criterion related validity
measure of the extent to which the test accurately forecasts a specific future result predictive validity
the extent to which a test actually measures the hypothetical construct or behavior it is designed to assess construct validity
generally include a large number of easy items administered with strict time limits under which most test takers find it impossible to answer all the questions speed tests
allot enough time for test takers to complete the items of varying difficulty on these tests so that difference in scores among test takers are a function of the test taker's knowledge and possibly good guessing power test
designed to predict a person's future performance or to assess the person's capacity to learn EX: SAT or ACT aptitude tests
designed to assess what a person has already learned EX: AP tests achievement tests
incorporate skills and knowledge related to the cultural experiences of the test takers may be more successful culture relevant tests
occurs when a construct is treated as though it is were a concrete, tangible object reification
the aggregate or global capacity the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment intelligence
mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100 intelligence quotient
intellectual deficiency characterized by intelligence quotient at least two standard deviations below the mean and difficulty in adapting to and coping with environmental demands of independent living mental retardation
results from sociocultural deprivation in an impoverished environment cultural family retardation
integrated into regular environment mainstreamed
statistical procedure that identifies closely related clusters of factors among groups of items by determining which variables have a high degree of correlation factor analysis
cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning that tends to diminish with adult aging fluid intelligence
learned knowledge and skills such as vocabulary that tends to increase with age crystallized intelligence
theory that intelligence is composed of many different factors, including at least eight intelligences: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic theory of multiple intelligences
the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions emotional intelligence
Robert Sternberg's idea of three separate and testable intelligences: analytical (facts), practical ("street smarts"), and creative (seeing multiple solutions). triarchic theory of intelligence
ability to generate ideas and solutions that are original, novel, and useful, is not usually measured by intelligence tests Creativity
a certain level of intelligence is necessary, but not sufficient for creative work Threshold Theory
proportion of variation among individuals that results from genetic causes Heritability
says that genetic makeup determines the upper limit for an individual's IQ, which can be attained in an ideal environment, and the lower limit, which would result in an impoverished environment reaction range model
range of scores within a particular group Within Group Differences
range of scores between two groups Between Group Differences
anxiety that influences members of a group concerned that their performance on a test will confirm a negative stereotype Stereotype Threat
Created by: Laur