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Biological Bases

*BLHS Biological Bases of Behavior

Biological Bases of BehaviorDefinition
Neuropsychologists Explore the relationships between the brain/nervous systems and behavior
Broca's Area Left frontal lobe part controls language expression
expressive aphasia loss of ability to speak
receptive aphasia loss of ability to comprehend written or spoken language
Lesions precise destruction of brain tissue
Wernicke's Area Left temporal lobe that plays role in understanding language and making meaningful sentences
Corpus callosum broad band of nervous tissue that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres transmitting information from one side of the brain to the other
Central Nervous System consists of your brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System Portion of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. It inlcudes all of the sensory and motor neurons, and subdivisions called the autonomic and somatic nervous
Somatic Nervous System subdivision of Peripheral Nervous System that includes motor nevers that innervate skeletal (voluntary) muscle
Autonomic Nervous System subdivision of Peripheral Nervous System that includes motor nerves that innervate smooth (involuntary) or heart muscle.
Sympathetic Nervous System Subdivision of Autonomic Nervous System whose stimulation results in responses that help the body deal with stressful events; prepares the body for "fight or flight"; running from a terrifying object or situation
Parasympathetic Nervous System Subdivision of Autonomic Nervous System whose stimulation calms the body following sympathetic stimulation by restoring normal body processes; causes bodily changes for maintenance or rest; calming down after running from a terrifying object or situation
Association Areas Do not have specific sensory or motor functions, but are involved in higher mental functions, such as thinking, planning, and communicating
Contralaterality control of one side of your body by the other side of your brain
Medulla Oblongata Regulates heart rhythm, blood flow, breakthing rate, digestion, vomiting
Pons Part of brainstem that includes portion of reticular activating system or reticular formation critical for arousal and wakefulness; sends information to and from medulla, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex
Cerebellum Maintains balance
Thalamus Relay "station" for sensory pathways carrying visual, auditory, taste, somatosensory information to/from appropriate areas of cerebral cortex; Some nuclei involved in emotion
Hypothalamus Controls body temperature and heart rate via control of sympathetic and parasympathetic centers in the medulla; drives such as thirst, hunger, sexual desire and behaviors; emotional states such as rage; helps determine biological rhythms:menstrual cycle
Amygdala Influences aggression and fear; someone scares you and your immediate reaction is to fling your arms in self defense the amygdala is at work
Hippocampus Enables formation of new long-term memories
Cerebral Cortex receives and processes sensory information and directs movement; center for higher order processes such as thinking, planning, and judgement
Excitatory Neurotransmitters cause the neuron on the other side of the synapse to generate an action potential (to fire)
Inhibitory Reducing or preventing neural impulses, (not likely to fire
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Results in severe, irreversible brain damage unless a baby is fed a special diet low in phenylalanine within 30 days of birth; the infant lacks an enzyme to process this amino acid which can build up and posion cells of the nervous system
Huntington's Disease dominant gene defect that invloves degeneration of the nervous system; symptoms involve forgetfulness, tremors, jerky motions, loss of the ability to talk, personality changes such as temper tantrums or inappropriate accusations, blindness or death
Plasticity When one area of the brain is damaged, the brain can recognize to take over is function
Created by: brittneymarie