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Cognition

*BLHS Cognition

QuestionAnswer
Concept Mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people. The concept "chair" includes-high chair, reclining chair, folding chair etc.-all are used for sitting . Chairs vary but their common features define them as a chair.
Heuristics A simple thinking strategy that allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently. An example of a heuristic process often used is trial and error. When given a jumbled word, we often pair up letters until the correct solution is found.
Fixation The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
Framing The way an issue is presented; how an issue is framed can affect decisions and judgements. Example: Consumers respond more positively to ground beef that is "75% lean" rather than "25% fat"
Belief bias The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning. Example: Premise 1 Robins have feathers. Premise 2 Chickens are not robins Conclusion Chickens do not have feathers
Phoneme In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. Example: To say "bat" we utter the sounds b, a, and t. To say "chat" we utter the phonemes ch, a, and t.
Morpheme In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning: may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix). Example: Pre- in "preview" is a morpheme. Undesirable has three morphemes. un-desir-able
Semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language. Example: the semantic rule tells that adding -ed to "laugh" means that it happened in the past.
Syntax Refers to the rules used for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language. Example: One rule of English syntax says that adjectives come before nouns.
Functional Fixedness The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions, impediment to problem solving. Example, a hammer not only can be used for driving or removing nails, but also serves as a paperweight, nutcracker etc.
Mental Set Tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. Example: Given O-T-T-F-?-?-? what are the next three letters? (F-ive, S-ix, S-even). By solving this it will make the next pattern problem easier.
Serial Position Effect The tendency to remember and recall information that comes at the beginning (primary effect) and at the end of a list of words (recency effect) more easily than those in the middle.
Confabulation Filling in gaps in memory by combining and substituting memories from events other than ones you're trying to remember.
Incubation Putting aside a problem temporarily; allows the problem solver to look at the problem from a different perspective.
Chomsky: Inborn Universal Grammar Children learn the environment's language. They generate sentences that they have heard then piece together other aspects of grammar to expand language.
Skinner: Operant Learning Language developement is determined by familiar learning principals (association, imitation, and reinforcement)
Cognition he mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Insight A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Overconfidence The tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.
Belief Perseverance Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Created by: alexisann