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RADT1300 Lecture 2

In-class lecture material about fundamentals of radiography.

What is matter? Anything that has mass and takes of space (has volume).
What are molecules? Atoms of same or different elements combine.
What atom model is best used for x-ray? Bohr model: -electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus -central dense but mostly empty space.
What is Rutherford's model of the atom? -mostly empty space -small, positive nucleus -contained protons -negative electrons scattered around the outside
What is another name for "the electron cloud?" The wave model.
What is the electron cloud (wave model)? A spherical cloud of varying density that shows where an electron is more or less likely to be.
What are the basic components of an atom? Protons, neutrons, and electrons.
What is the atomic structure of electrons? -Tiny, very light particles. -Negative electrical charge (-). -Move around the outside of the nucleus in specific shells. -Limit to how many can be in each shell.
What is the atomic structure of protons? -Much larger and heavier than electrons. -Positive charge (+). -Located in the nucleus of the atom.
What is the atomic structure of neutrons? -Large and heavy like protons. -No electrical charge. -Located in the nucleus of an atom.
What is the structure of an atom? -Nucleus: small, dense center that contains the necleons (protons and neutrons). -Electrons orbit the nucleus continuously.
What are electron shells? Electrons that move around in specific shells.
How is the number of electrons moving around the electron shells determined? Number of protons in the shell.
What are the two ways electron shells are labeled? K,L,M,N,O,P,Q and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
What is the closest shell? K-shell or 1.
What formula is used to determine the maximum number of electrons that can occupy a given shell? 2(n)^2; n= the shell or principal quantum number. Example: K=2(1)^2=2
What is electron binding energy (Eb)? The amount of energy needed to remove the electron from the shell. Describes how tightly e-'s are held in place.
What shell has the tightest/highest binding energy? K-shell.
What is an electron volt (eV)? The unit used to measure the binding energy of an electron. THE ENERGY ONE ELECTRON WILL HAVE WHEN IT IS ACCELERATE BY AN ELECTRIC POTENTIAL OF ONE VOLT.
What is energy? Ability to do work.
What is potential energy? Energy that matter stores because of it's position or location.
How is energy measured? Joule.
What is radiation? When energy is emitted and transferred through matter.
What is Einstein's theory about energy? Mass and energy have the same equivalence E=mc2 C=speed of light so there is a there is a really really huge amount of energy bound up in every material thing.
What is liberated matter? Energy waiting to happen.
Will there be MORE or LESS potential energy the further away electrons are from the nucleus? MORE.
TRUE or FALSE? Changes in potential energy can occur in steps of various amounts moving the electrons to a fixed location. FALSE. Changes in potential energy can only occur in steps of a fixed amount, moving the electrons to a fixed location.
TRUE or FALSE? An electron cannot exist between the fixed locations. TRUE.
TRUE or FALSE? The amount of energy = to the difference in the binding energy between the two shells. TRUE.
TRUE or FALSE? Bound particles always have a positive energy. FALSE. Bound particles always have negative energy.
What is an ion? An atom that carries an electrical charge. If the atom loses electrons, the atom becomes positively charged. If the atom gains electrons, the atom becomes negatively charged.
TRUE or FALSE? The number of protons and neutrons changes in an ion. FALSE. The number of protons and neutrons do not change in an ion.
What is ionizing radiation? The process of removing an electron from it's shell.
What is the atomic mass number (A)? Equal to the number of protons plus neutrons.
Where is the atomic mass number written? Above and to the left of the chemical symbol.
What is the atomic mass number (Z)? Number of protons. Always smaller than the mass number.
What are isotopes? Two atoms with different numbers of neutrons. The number of protons for a given atom never changes. The number of neutrons can change.
What is half life? Time required to transform half the atoms of original element into final element. Depends on radioisotopes.
What are radioisotopes? Unstable isotopes and radioactive decay.
What are some examples of ionizing radiation? X-rays, gamma rays.
What are the two forms of particulate radiation? Alpha and beta.
What are Alpha particles? Form of particulate radiation that is very large compared to other types of radiation. Not very penetrating and can be stopped by paper.
What are Beta particles? Form of particulate radiation that is more penetrating than alpha but less than gamma or x-ray. Encountered in NM.
What two types of radiation penetrates many kinds of tissue? X-ray and gamma.
What are the three components of natural environmental radiation? Cosmic, terrestrial, and internally deposited radionuclides (potassium in body).
Created by: cccxray2013