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Med. Term.Ch.4

Respiratory System

TermDefinition
diagnosis identification of a disease or condition by a scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, laboratory test results, and procedures
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs or the respiratory system
respiration molecular exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the body's tissues (breathing, pulmonary ventilation)
thoracic pertaining to the thorax or thoracic cage
vascular pertaining to a blood vessel
adenoid/o adenoids
laryng/o larynx
nas/o nose
rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
tonsill/o tonsils
treache/o trachea
alveo/o alveolus
bronch/o bronchus
bronchi/o bronchus
bronchiol/o bronchiole
phren/o diaphragm
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o air, lung
pneumon/o pneumonia
pulmon/o lung
thorac/o chest
aer/o air
cyan/o blue
mastoid mastoid process
muc/o mucus
myc/o fungus
orth/o straight
py/o pus
a- without, not
brady- slow
dys- bad, painful, difficult
eu- good, normal
tachy- rapid
abnormal breath sounds abnormal sounds during inhalation or expiration, with or without a stethoscope
crackles (rales) fine crackling or bubbling sounds, commonly heard during inspiration when there is a fluid in the avlveoli
friction rub dry, grating sound heard with a stethoscope during auscultation (listening for sounds within the body)
rhonchi loud coarse or snoring sounds heard during inspiration or expiration. caused by obstructed airways
stridor high-pitched, musical sound made on inspiration; caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx
wheezes continuous high pitched whistling sounds. usually during expiration. caused by a narrowing airway
acidosis excessive acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate caused by abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide in the body
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) life-threatening. buildup of fluid in the air sacs (alveoli). caused by vomit into the lungs (aspiration), inhaling chemicals, pneumonia, septic shock, or trauma. prevents enough oxygen from passing into bloodstream (adult respiratory distress syndrome)
anosmia absence or decrease in the sense of smell
anoxia total absence of oxygen in body tissues. lack of oxygen inhaled or an obstruction in lungs
asphyxia condition of insufficient intake of oxygen due to chocking, toxic gases, electric shock, drugs, drowning, smoke, or trauma
asthma inflammatory airway disorder that results in wheezing, shortness of breath attacks that get worse with exercise or activity and coughing
atelectasis lung tissue collapse. prevents respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. caused by a variety of conditions including obstructions of foreign bodies, excessive secretions, pressure on the lung from a tumor
bronchitis acute or chronic inflammation of mucous membranes of the bronchial airways caused by irritation, infection, or both
coryza (cold) acute inflammation of the nasal passages accompanied by profuse nasal discharge
croup acute respiratory syndrome that occurs primarily in children and infants and is characterized by laryngeal obstruction and spasm, barking cough, and stridor
cystic fibrosis (CF) genetic disorder that is one of the most common types of chronic lung disease in children and young adults. causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract, early death
emphysema chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). makes it difficult to break. characterized by loss elasticity of the lung tissue that causes the small airways to collapse during forced exhalation
epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhage from the nose
hypercapnia greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in the blood. usually a sign of respiratory impairment
hypoxia deficiency of oxygen in the body tissues. usually a sign of respiratory impairment
influenza (flu) acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain
otitis media (OM) inflammation of the middle ear. commonly the result of an upper respiratory infection (URI) with symptoms of otodynia. treated with myringotomy or typoanostomy tubes
exudative OM with the presence of fluid, such as pus or serum
pertussis (whooping cough) acute infectious disease characterized by a "whoop"-sounding cough
pleurisy acute infectious disease characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by a deep breathing or coughing
pneumothorax collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. causing the complete or partial collapse of a lung
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (crib death) completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well or virtually well infant
arterial blood gases (ABGs) group of tests that measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in an arterial blood sample
Mantoux test intradermal test to determine recent or past exposure to tuberculosis (TB)
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) variety of tests used to determine the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) basic emergency procedure for life support, consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac massage
endotracheal intubation procedure in which an airway catheter is inserted through the mouth or nose into the trachea in patients who are unable to breathe on their own or to administer oxygen, medication, or anesthesia
postural drainage use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions from the specific lobes of the lungs, bronchi, or lunch cavities
thoracocentesis (thoracentesis) needle usage to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
tracheostomy incision into the trachea and creating a permanent opening that a tube is inserted to keep the opening patent (accessible or wide open)
bronchodilators dilate constricted airways by relaxing muscle spams in the bronchial tubes through oral administration or inhaled via a meteredose inhaler (MDI)
corticosteroids suppress the inflammatory reaction that causes swelling and narrowing of the bronchi
expectorants improve the ability to cough up musuc from the respiratory tract
metered-dose inhaler device that enables the patient to self-administer a specific amount of medication into the lungs through inhalation
nebulized mist treatment (NMT) (aerosol therapy) method of administering medication directly into the lungs using a device (nebulizer) that produces a fine spray
bronchoscopy visual examination of interior bronchi. uses a bronchoscope. inserted through the nose (transnasally) or the mouth.
biospy specimen the thing that causes an obstruction?
apnea pg. 92 temporary cessation of breathing. hypertension, arrhythmia, obstructive sleep apnea.
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) pg. 92 gentle ventilator support used to keep the airways open
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pg. 93 group of respiratory disorders. characterized by chronic, partial obstruction in the bronchi and lungs that make it difficult to breathe. mucus clogged. asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema
ABG arterial blood gas
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
Dx diagnosis
IV intravenous
OP outpatient, operative procedure
OSA obstructive sleep apnea
PFT pulmonary function test
UPP uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
ORI upper respiratory infection
pulmonologists treat respiratory disorders like asthema, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, ventilator support, lung transplantation
respiratory system nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs, breathing muscles
external respiration oxygen is inhaled and carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream and is expelled
internal respiration oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged at the cellular level
bronchoscopy endoscopic procedure that is visual examination of the interior Bronchi using a flexible fiberoptic instrustment with a light (bronchoscope). performed through the nose (transnasally) or through mouth. to biopsy specimen
Created by: 697149295