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Optical density, artifacts

When only soft tissue is beng imaged, __ kVp and __ mAs are used. Low, High
___ kVp and __ mAs results in an image with satisfactory contrast and low patient radiation exposure. High, low
Radiolucent tissue appears ___ on radiographs. Black
Radiopaque tissue appears __ on radiographs. White
Destructive pathology causes tissue to appear __. Radiolucent
Constructive pathology causes tissue to appear __. Radiopaque
What is optical density? Degree of blackening of the finished radiograph.
In OD, black is has an OD of what number? 4 or greater
In OD, clear has an OD of what number? Less than 0.2
OD is controlled by what 2 factors? mAs and SID
In order to produce a visible change in OD, mAs must be changed by __%. 30%
kVp must be change by __% to produce a perceptible change in OD. 4%
A __% increase in kVp accompanied by a half reduction in mAs results in the same OD. 15%
The simplest method for increasing or decreasing OD on an x-ray is to increase or decrease __. mAs
High kVp produces? LONG scale, LOW contrast, LESS contrast
Low kVp produces? SHORT scale, HIGH contrast, MORE contrast
Detail is controlled by? Focal-spot size
What are the three classes of artifacts? Processing, Exposure and Handling
Pi lines, dichroic stains and chemical fog are examples of what type of artifact? Processing artifacts
Motion, poor screen contact and improper grid position are examples of what type of artifact? Exposure artifacts
Kink marks, radiation fog and scratches are examples of what type of artifact? Handing and storage artifacts
What are two types of roller marks? Guide-shoe marks and Pi lines.
What is the cause of dichroic stains? Improper squeezing of processing chemicals from film
What is the cause of guide-shoe marks? Improper position or springing of guide shoes in turn-around assembly.
What is the cause of pi lines? Dirt or chemical stains on rollers
T/F: Dichroic stain is a type of chemical fog. True
T/F: Processing artifacts in digital radiography are different from those with screen-film because the method of producing the image is electronic instead of chemical. True
Name several handling and storage artifacts. Fog, kink marks, crown
What causes pressure marks? Improperly or roughly handled film
What causes fog? High temperature or humidity
What are the 3 types of static artifacts? Crown, Tree and Smudge
Created by: rad1958tech