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MA103 Final

the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into forms that your body can adsorb is known as digestion
the buccal cavity is also known as the mouth
what muscle of the face aids in chewing of the food? masseter
chemical digestion starts in the mouth with the introduction of food to what enzyme that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates and starches? amalyse
the tongue is made mostly of which type of muscle? skeletal
the lingual tonsils are located in the back of the tongue, and function to destroy bacteria and viruses
which structure is located in the back of the throat and functions to prevent food and liquids from entering the nose during swallowing uvula
salivary glads secrete saliva, which is a mixture of what? water, enzymes, and mucus
the mass created by food mixed with the saliva and the mucus is called a bolus
true or false: swallowing is a reflex TRUE it is an automatic response that doesn't require much thought
what is the name of the muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach? the esophagus
the hole in the diaphragm that allows for passage of the esophagus is called the esophageal hiatus
what is the term used to describe a condition when the stomach gets pushed up into the thoracic cavity through the esophageal hiatus? hiatal hernia
which quadrant is the stomach located in? LUQ
what is the function of the mucous cells in the stomach? to secrete mucous to protect the lining of the stomach
what is the function of the parietal cells in the stomach? to secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
what is the function of the intrinsic factor in the stomach? B12 absorption
which system stimulates the gastric glands to secrete their products the parasympathetic (rest and digest!)
the stomach does not absorb many substances, however, it does absorb alcohol, water, some fat-soluble drugs
the mixture of food and gastric juices together is called? chyme
about how long does it take for the stomach to empty after a meal? 4-8 hours
true or false: most of the digestion happens in the small intestine TRUE: and is responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients into the blood stream
which part of the digestive system is responsible absorbing most of the nutrients into the blood stream? the small intestine
the beginning or first portion of the small intestine is referred to as the duodenum
the mid portion of the small intestine is referred to as the jejunum
the last portion of the small intestine is referred to as the ileum
true or false: most of the digestion happens in the small intestine TRUE: and is responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients into the blood stream
a fan like tissue called the mesentery functions to hold the small and large intestine in place in the abdominal cavity
the lining of the small intestine contain special cells that help to increase the surface area of the small intestine to better absorb nutrients. what are these cells called? microvilli
what triggers the small intestine to secrete it's enzyme? the parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest) and the stretching of the small intestine wall
the first portion of the large intestine is called the cecum
the large intestine has 3 parts. what are they ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon
where is the appendix located? RLQ
the liver is quite large and fills up almost all of which quadrant? RUQ
how many lobes does the liver have? 2
bile is produced in the ____ and then stored in the _____ liver, gall bladder
bile leaves the liver through the hepatic duct
the hepatic duct leaves the liver and merges with which other duct to form the common bile duct? the cystic duct
what is the name of the small sac like structure that is located beneath the liver? the gall bladder
the gall bladder has only 1 function, what is it? to store bile
which hormone causes the gall bladder to release bile? cholecystokinin (KO-LEE-CYST-O-KIN-IN)
the salts that are in bile function to break large fat globules into smaller ones so that they can be digested more quickly by the digestive enzymes
which digestive organ is located behind the stomach? the pancreas
the pancreas has "acinar" cells that produce pancreatic juice, which ultimately flows through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum
there are 4 vitamins that are conisdered "fat souluble". what are they? A, D, K, and E
an inflammation of the appendix is called appendicitis
a chronic disease in which normal liver tissue is replaced with non functional scar tissue is called cirrhosis
what is the medical term for inflammation of the large intestine? colitis
chron's disease is a common type of disorder called inflammatory bowel disease. it typically effects which portion of the digestive tract? the end of the small intestine
the following are signs and symptoms of which digestive system disorder? fever, tender gums, joint pain, GI ulcers, abd pain and gas, constipation and or diarrhea, abnormal abd sounds, weight loss, intestinal bleeding, blood in the feces chron's disease
what is the definition of a "diverticuli"? abnormal dilations or pouches in the intestinal wall.
diverticulitis is defined as inflammation of diverticuli in the intestne
diverticulosis abnormal outpouchings or dilations of the intestine
also known as "an upset stomach" what is gastritis? an inflammation of the stomach lining
what does GERD stand for? GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease
what is the condition called when stomach acids are pushed back up into the esophagus? GERD or heartburn
what is the medical term for an inflammation of the liver? hepatitis
the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs are considered to be the organs of which body system? the respiratory system
how many lobes are in the right lung? 3
how many lobes are in the left lung? 2
during inspiration the diaphragm contracts or relaxes? contracts
during expiration the diaphragm contracts or relaxes? relaxes
the respiratory center of the brain controls breathing
symptoms: a cough that lasts more than 3 weeks, unintended weight loss, fever or chills, fatigue, night sweats, pain when breathing, pain in other "affected" areas Tuberculosis "TB"
symptoms: fever, cough, HA, pharyngitis, facial pain, nasal congestion sinusitis
symptoms: fainting, sudden SOB, hemoptysis, wheezing, tachycardia, diaphoresis, chest pain that may spread to the shoulder pulmonary embolism "PE"
symptoms: tightness in the chest or a sharp chest pain, SOB, tachycardia pneumothorax "PTX"
symptoms: runny nose, sore throat, sneezing, fever or chills, dry cough, muscle pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhea influenza "the flu"
symptoms: difficulty breathing, tight feeling in the chest, wheezing and coughing, asthma
organs of the body that secrete hormones directly into body fluids such as blood are called hormones
true or false: hormones help to regulate the chemical reactions within the cells, and therefore control the functions of the organs true
soluble in lipids and can cross cell membranes very easily steroidal hormones
made of amino acids or proteins and cannot cross the cell membrane easily nonsteroidal hormones
these glands are ductless glands that release hormones directly into the blood stream and tissuces endocrine glands
a stimulus causes a body reaction that is detected by another area of the body, which stops the reaction negative feedback loop
a stimulus begins a process that will continue as long as the stimulus continues positive feed back loop
what is an example of a negative feedback loop the rise in blood sugar causes the pancreas to release insulin to lower blood sugar
what is an example of a positive feedback loop breast feeding; suckling stimulates the breast to produce milk, when the suckling stops, the milk stops
the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands are located in the brain
the thyroid and parathyroid glands are located in the neck
the thymus gland is located in the mediastinum
the adrenal glands are located above each kidney
the pancreas is located behind the stomach
the female gonads (the ovaries) are located in the abdominal cavity
the male gonads (the tested) are located in the scrotal sac, outside of the body
the pituitary gland releases 9 hormones. you must know these 7: GH, TSH, FSH, LH, PRL, ADH, OT
GH growth hormone, stimulates an increase in the size of the muscles and bones in the body
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone, stimulates the thyroid to release it's hormones (T3 and T4)
FSH folicle stimulating hormone, females stimulates production of estrogen by the ovaries, in males stimulates sperm production
LH leutenizing hormone, in females stimulates ovulation and production of estrogen. in males stimulates production of testosterone
PRL prolactin, in females the hormone stimulates milk production by the mammary glands. in males enhances the functioning of LH
ADH antidiuretic hormone, stimulates the kidneys to conserve water. important in maintaining BP
OT oxytocin, in females, causes contractions of the uterus during child birth and causes the ejection of milk during breast feeding. in males stimulates the contraction of the prostate and the vas defrens during sexual arousal
the pituitary gland has an anterior and a posterior portion. what hormones are released by the posterior pituitary gland? ADH and OT
the adrenal medulla secretes epinepherine and norepinepherine which work with which branch of the nervous sustem the sympathetic
2 major hormones produced by the adrenal cortex? aldosterone and cortisol
aldosterone is responsible for BP maintenance
cortisol is responsible for decreasing inflammation
the pancrease is responsible for which hormone? insulin
melatonin is a hormone that is responsible for regulating the circadian rhythms, which help your body known when to sleep and when to be awake
ovaries release which hormone? estrogen
testes release which hormone? testosterone
erythropoietin is produced in the kidneys
ANP or atrial natriuretic peptide is produced by the heart
a stressor is defind as a stimuli that produces a stress response
Gigantism is a disorder of the endrocrine system, and is caused by Hypersecretion of the GH
Graves disease is a disorder of the endocrine system, and is caused by Hypersecretion of the T3 and T4 hormones
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the endocrine system, and is caused by Hyposecretion of insulin
a mixture of seminal fluid, prostatic fluid, sperm cells, and a lubricating fluid is known as semen
the organs of the female reproductive system include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
what is the hormone responsible for the male secondary sex characteristics testosterone
what is the hormone responsible for the female secondary sex characteristics estrogen
the female menstrual cycle causes periodic changes in the uterine lining. after a menstrual cycle, the body prepares for the next ocularoty cycle by increasing levels of what 2 hormones? estrogen and progesterone
In regards to the menstrual cyle, if pregnancy does not occur, the levels of estrogen and progesterone drop causing the uterine lining to break down, and shed, causing the menstrual flow
the cessation of the menstrual cycle is referred to as menopause
where does fertilization usually take place? the fallopian tubes
this system is responsible for protecting the body against bacteria, viruses, fungi, toxins, parasites, and cancer the immune system
in addition to the lymph vessels, the lymphatic system system includes lymph nodes, the thymus, and the spleen
the presence of a pathogen in or on the body is known as an infection
bone cells are called osteocytes
there are parts to a long bone. the diaphysis and the epiphysis. which part is is the shaft? the diaphysis
there are 2 parts to a long bone. the diaphysis and the epiphysis. which past is the expanded end of a long bone? the epiphysis
a membrane that surrounds the diaphysis of a bone is called the periosteum
a membrane that lines the medullary cavity and the holes of bones is called the endosteum
there are 4 classifications of bones in the body. what are they? long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones
bones go through a growth process called ossification
as long as abone contains some cartilage between an epiphysis and the diaphysis, it can continue to grow in length. what is the name of this area of the bone that allows the bone to continue growing the epiphyseal plate or the growth plate
an articulation is where 2 bones come together and is also known as a joint
a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that attacks the smaller joints, typically the hands and feet as well as the surrounding area is called RA or rheumatoid arthritis
carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when what nerve in the wrist is excessively compressed? the medial nerve
osteogenesis imperfecta is a bone disease better known as brittle bone disease
abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating colitis
anemia, fatigue, mental confusion, fever, vomiting, blood in vomit,jaundice, unintended weight loss, swelling of the legs, and pale feces cirrhosis