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Section 1 RCP 120 JH

RCP 120 Section 1

What do Alpha receptors do? Think Vasoconstrict in mucus membranes. Less swelling less edema
Beta Receptors do what? Generally excite with exception of heart where it stimulates.
Explain beta 1. Heart increases rate, velocity and force
Explain beta 2. Lungs broncodialates
Parasympathetic stimulation effects? At heart: Decreases rate, force, and velocity. At lungs: Vasoconstricts, increases mucus secretions
Nervous impulses are conducted by what? Electrical and chemical means
Where does chemical transmission of electrical impulse occur? At the synapses
What is the chemical transmitter in the parasympathetic branch? Acetylcholine
What inactivates (or inhibits) Acetylcholine? Cholinesterase
Other name for Parasympathomemetics? Cholinergic
Other name for Parasympatholytics? anti-cholinergic
Other name for sympathomemetics? Adrenergic
Other name for Sympatholytics? Anti-adrenergic
Most common used class of drugs used by RCP's sympathomemetic
What drugs act where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter? Cholinergic and anti-colinergic
What drugs act where norepinepherine is neurotransmitter? Adrenergic and anti-adrenergic
Another name for norepinepherine? Adrenaline
Explain Beta receptor pathway in the Sympathetic branch.... 1. Norepinepherine 2. adenylcyclase 3. ATP 4. cyclic AMP 5. Phosphodiesterase
How do we reverse bronchoconstriction with medications? With beta-sympathomemetics (adrenogerics)these meds increase amount of Cyclic AMP therefore allowing bronchodialation. OR parasympatholytics which BLOCK Cyclic GMP allowing AMP to increase allowing bronchodialation
Another name for Generic? Non-Proprietary
Another name for Trade name? Proprietary
Passive diffusion? No energy (ATP) required
Facilitated diffusion? No energy (ATP) required uses carriers and transport is more rapid
Simple Diffustio? Does not require energy and relies on concentration gradient from higher concentration to lower.
Filtration? Filters through pores
Active Transport? Does require energy (ATP) and moves against a concentration gradient; lower to higher.
Pinocytosis? cell eats extra cellular fluid
What is major site of drug metabolism? The Liver
Excretion of a drug from the system occurs primarily through what organ? The Kidneys
Drug affinity? Measure of attraction of a drug with a receptor site.
Drug efficacy? Stimulates
Agonist- attaches and stimulates; has affinity and efficacy
Antagonist- blocks
Antagonism 2 drugs with opposing effects
Cumulation- Drug is not excreted as fast as it is administered
Tolerance More drug is needed to produce the same effect.
Tachyphylaxis Rapidly developing a tolerance
Additive (1+1=2) 2 drugs together give effect equal to individual effect
Synergism- (1+0=2) 2 different drugs; one inactive on receptor site and one active produces greater effect than one active drug does 50
Potentiation- (1+1=3) 2 drugs together make effect greater than one drug alone
TI= LD50/ED50 Therapeutic index= lethal dose 50/effective dose
LD50? ED50? Lethal dose 50: Dose amount lethal to 50% of test population Effective dose 50: dose amount that is effective in 50% of test population
Low number for TI? High number for TI? More dangerous Safer
How do you figure TI? take LD50 and divide by ED50 that number is your TI; higer number is safer than lower number
3 basic phases of drug action? 1. Drug administration Phase 2. Pharmacokinetic 3. Pharmacodynamic
Explain drug administration phase. Depends on form and route of administration
Explain pharmacokinetic phase Absorbtion, distribution, metablolism and elimination
Explain pharmacodynamic phase Think lock and key answers the question of how a paticular drug works
What is the main funstion of Liver? Metabolism of medications
What is main function of Kidneys? Excretion of medications
Autonomic nervous system does what? Controls involuntary, unconcious control mechanisms of the body
Where is respiratory center located? Vasometer that controls blood pressure? Medulla oblangata Medulla oblangata
Is parasympathetic or sympathetic essential to life? Parasympathetic; it controls day to day functions.
What division is responsible for Fight-or-Flight? Sympathetic Division
Explain neurotransmitter control Electrical impulse, being converted into chemical
Sympathetic effects at heart? " " " Lungs? Increases rate, force and velocity. Relax and dialate (bronchodialates) increases mucus production
Chemical neurotransmitter in Sympathetic branch? Norepinepherine
Drugs that are similar to norepinepherine in structure Catacholamines
What is primarily responsible for terminating the action of norepinepherine? Reuptake process 1
Explain reuptake process 1- -norepinepherine is reabsorbed into membranes of the neuron
Explain reuptake process 2- -uptake in non-neuronal tissues
Methods of action for termination the a ction of norepinepherine other than reuptake processes? Enzymatic- COMT and MAO
COMT? is responsible for ending action of catecholimine bronchodialators. it very rapidly inactivates drugs such as epinepherine** Therefore these drugs are not useful for long term therapy.
MAO? capeable of degrading catecholimines... bc it is found in the GI tract it makes oral use of catecholamines very ineffective
What determines bronchodialation? The level of Cyclic AMP
WHat is it called when beta receptors become unresponsive to stimulation? Beta blockade; this can also be induced pharmacologically with beta blocking agents
What does Cyclic AMP do? Relaxes smooth muscle to cause bronchodialation and stops mast cell breakdown
Explain beta receptor pathway in PARASYMPATHETIC division 1. Norepinepherine 2. Guanylcyclase 3. ATP 4. Cyclic GMP 5. Phosphodiesterase
What does Cyclic GMP do? 1. Contracts smooth muscle causing bronchoconstriction 2. excites mast cells releasing histamine and other bronchoconstricting mediators
Created by: joydurham