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Symptoms 1

flash cards for Pt A class with Moore

Signs Vs Symptoms Signs: Subjective, Patient description, Measured by the patient's perception (anything the patient says they are experiencing) Symptoms: Objective, Measurable, Assessed Values (tachycardia, bradycardia)
Assessing Symptoms is important in order to determine the.... 1.) Seriousness of problem, 2.) potential underlying causes of problem 3.) effectiveness of the treatment
Primary symptoms of Cardiopulmonary disorders are: - Cough - Sputum production - Hemoptysis - shortness of breath - chest pain
Hemoptysis Coughing up blood
Dyspnea Difficulty breathing
A cough is a protective reflex by the stimulation of receptors in the: -pharynx -larynx -bronchi -lung and visceral pleura.
Coughing is caused by these types of stimulation: 1.) Mechanical (obstructive, airway tension) 2.) Inflammatory (chemical allergy) 3.) Thermal stimulation of receptors
Inflammatory Stimulation is due to: - Infection - lung abscess - drug reaction - allergy - edema - hyperemia - collagen vascular disease - radiotherapy - pneumoconiosis - tuberculosis
Mechanical Stimulation is due to: -inhaled dust -suction catheter -presence of food
Obstructive Stimulation of coughing is due to: -foreign bodies -aspirations of nasal secretions -tumors or granulomas within or around lung -aortic aneurysm
Airway Wall Tension Stimulation of coughing is due to: -pulmonary edema -atelectasis - fibrosis - chronic interstitial pneumonitis
Chemical Stimulation of coughing is due to: Inhaled irritants: gas, fumes, smoke, etc
Temperature Stimulation of coughing is due to: hot or cold air
Stimulation of coughing due to ear: tactile pressure in ear canal or otitis media (middle ear infection)
Pulmonary edema looks like.... and should be treated with.... pink frothy secretions... diuretics
Atalactisis collapsed alveoli You may hear popping or cracking when the alveoli begin to fill again.
Fibrosis overuse causing shearing damage Shearing damage caused by bending back and forth, eventually forming weak points that break and is replaced with scar tissue.
Afferent Pathway of a cough vagus -> phrenic -> glossopharyngeal -> trigeminal nerves
Efferent Pathway of a cough Phrenic and Spinal nerve
Phases of Coughing Inspiratory, Compression, Expiratory
Reduced effectiveness of coughing is due to: weak inspiration and expiration muscles, malfunction of glottis opening and closing, altered airways, decrease of lung recoil, abnormal quantity/quality of mucus production
Acute Vs Chronic Coughing Acute: has a sudden onset, severe, short course, self limiting like a viral infection. Chronic: is persistant, last longer than 3 weeks, may be caused by post nasal drip, COPD, Allergic rhinitis, GERD, Chronic Bronchitis and left heart failure.
Paroxysmal periodic prolonged forceful episodes of coughing.
Associated symptoms of coughing Wheezing, Stridor, Chest Pain and Dyspnea
Complications of coughing may cause torn chest muscles, rib fractures, a distruption of surgical wounds, pneumothorax, syncope, arrhythmia, esophageal rupture and urinary incontinence
Sputum production vs. Phlegm Sputum: Secretions from tracheobronchial tree, pharynx, mouth, sinuses and nose. Phlegm: Secretions from lungs and tracheobronchial tree.
Components of Sputum -Mucus -Cellular Debris -Microorganisms -Blood -Pus -Foreign Particles Normal production: 100mL/ day
Abnormal Sputum Production Excessive Production Should pay close attention to: color, quantity, consistency, odor, time of day, and presence of blood
Causes of Hemoptysis -Bronchopulmonary, Cardiovascular, Hematologic, or Systemic Disorders - Fungal infections - Tuberculosis
Look at Table 3.3 for Presumptive Sputum Analysis Appearances Possible causes clear normal Black smoke/ dust inhalation Brownish cig. smoker Frothy white or pink Aspiration
Hemoptysis Vs. Hematemesis Hemoptysis= cough up blood Hematemesis= vomit blood
view table 3-4 for distinguishing hemoptysis and hematemesis history associated symptoms blood pH mixed with froth color
SOB- Short or Breath distressing symptom of respiratory disease, limiting ability to function
Dyspnea subjective experience of breathing discomfort: perception of the sensation: breathless, short winded, or feeling like they are sufficating
Scoring system of Dyspnea Scale 0 (No SOB) - 10 (max SOB) modified by: Borg Scale
Causes, Types and clinical presentation of Dyspnea -WOB abnormally high for given level of exertion -Ventilatory capacity is reduced -Drive to breath is elevated
Look at Table 3-7 and 3-8 for types of dyspnea and causes
Clinical types of dyspnea Cardiac and Circulatory, Psychogenic, Hyperventilation, Acute/Recurrent, or Chronic
Cardiac/ circulatory Types of Dyspnea Inadequate supply of oxygen to tissues; Primarily during exercise
Psychogenic types of Dyspnea Panic Disorders, not related to exertion
Hyperventilation Exceeding body's metablolic need; Results in hypocapnia and decreased cerebral blood flow.
Acute or Recurrent Dyspnea In Children: asthma, bronchiolitis, Croup, epiglottitis In Adults: asthma, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pulmonary edema,hyperventilation and panic disorders
Chronic Dyspnea Most common in COPD or CHF
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea (PND) sudden dyspnea when sleeping in recumbent position, associated with coughing, sign of left heart failure
Orthopnea dyspnea when lying down associated with left heart failure
Trepopnea dyspnea when lying on one side, unilateral lung disease, pleural effusion
Platypnea dyspnea in upright position
Orthodeoxia hypoxemia in upright position, releived by returning to a recumbent position
Platypnea and orthodeoxia are seen in patients with right to left intracardia shunts or venoarterial shunts just so you know!
Causes of chest pain cardia ischemia, inflammatory disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, trauma, anxiety, referred pain from indegestion, dissecting aortic aneurysm
Cardinal Symptoms of heart disease angina (pain)
Pleuritic pain -inspiratory, sharp and abrupt in onset -worsens with inspiration, cough, sneeze, hiccup, or laughter - increases with pressure and movement
Chest wall pain -intercostal and pectoral muscles -well localized
Dizziness and Fainting (syncope) -temporary loss of consciousness (from reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen)
Causes of Syncope (dizziness and fainting) 1) Thrombosis- embolism, atherosclerotic obstruction 2.) Pulmonary- embolism, bouts of coughing, hypoxia, hypocapnia
Vasovagal -loss of peripheral venous tone -most common cause of syncope
Orthostatic Hypotension -sudden drop in BP when standing -dizziness, blurred vision and weakness -elderly, vasodilator use, dehydration
Carotid Sinus Syncope hypersenstive carotid sinuses, slow pulse rate, and decreased BP
Tussive Syncope caused by strong coughing, mainly in men with COPD obesity, smokers, and frequent users of alcohol
Edema soft tissue swelling from abnormal accumulation of fluid
Bilateral peripheral edema most often occurs in ankles and lower legs, due to left or right heart failure
Cor Pulmonale Right heart failure
Euthermia 97-99.5*F temp/ 36-37.5*C
FEVER: Hyperthermia/ Pyrexia sustained, remittent, intermittent, relapsing
Causes of Fever -hot environment -dehydration -reaction to chemicals -drugs -hypothalamic damage -infection -malignancy
personality changes in advance pulmonary disorders forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, anxiety and irritability
cerebral hypoxia and hypercapnia due to lung disease or high altitude causes a headache
SNORING is a serious concern when associated with apnea
When snoring goes bad... causes daytime fatigue, may cause occupational accidents, loss of employment, social dysfunction, and motor vehicle accidents
GERD- Gastroesophageal Reflux -Heartburn and regurgitation -Extraesophageal manifestations such as: laryngitis, asthma, chronic and nocturnal dry cough, chest pain, and dental erosion -Occurs more than twice a week
Risk factors of GERD obesity, smokers, and pregnancy
Created by: paigey2687