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World Geography07

Ch.1 Vocabulary

Geography The study of earth's surface and the processes that shape it, the connections between places, and the complex relationships between people and their environments.
GIS A geographic information system, which uses computer technology to collect and analyze data about the earths surface in order to solve geographic problems.
Absolute Location The position on earth in which a place can be found.
Hemisphere A half of the earth, the Equator divides the Northern and the Southern hemispheres, the Prime Meridian divides the Eastern and the Western hemispheres.
Relative Location The position of a place in relation to another place.
Character of a place The physical and human characteristics that help to distinguish a place from other places.
Perception A viewpoint that in influenced by ones own culture and experiences.
Formal Region A group of places that have similar attributes, for example, a political region.
Functional Region A group of places connected by movement, for example, the region drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
Perceptual Region A group of places that is defined by peoples feelings and attitudes.
Core The earth's center,consisting of very hot metal that is dense and solid in the inner core and molten, or liquid, in the outer core.
Mantle A thick layer of mostly solid rock beneath the earth's crust that surrounds the earth's core.
Crust The solid, rocky, surface layer of the earth.
Lithosphere The surface features of the earth, including soil, rocks, and landforms.
Atmosphere The layer of gases, water vapor, and other substances above the earth.
Hydrosphere The water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, and under the ground.
Biosphere The world of plants, animals, and other living things in earths land and waters.
Continent Any of the seven large landmasses of the earth's surface: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
Relief The differences in elevation, or height, of the landforms in any particular area.
Plate Tectonics The theory that the earth's outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates, or slabs of rock, whose constant movement explains earthquakes and volcanic activity.
Continental Drift Theory The idea that continents slowly shift their positions due to movement of the tectonic plates on which they ride.
Ring of Fire A ring of volcanic mountains surrounding the Pacific Ocean.
Weathering The chemical or mechanical process by which rock is gradually broken down, eventually becoming soil.
Mechanical Weathering The actual breaking up or physical weakening of rock by forces such as ice and roots.
Chemical Weathering The process by which the actual chemical chemical structure of rock is changed, usually when water and carbon dioxide cause a breakdown of the rock.
Acid Rain Rain whose high concentration of chemicals, usually from industrial pollution, pollutes water, kills plant and animal life, and eats away at the surface of stone and rock; a form of chemical weathering.
Erosion The movement of weathered materials, including gravel, soil, and sand usually caused by water, wind, and glaciers.
Sediment Particles of soil and rock carried and deposited by water, wind, or ice.
Loess Fine grained, mineral rich loam dust or silt deposited by the wind.
Glacier A huge slow moving mass of snow and ice.
Moraine A ridgelike mass of rock, gravel, sand, and clay carried and deposited by a glacier.
Created by: SydneePoynter



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