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Philo ISMs

IB Philosophy terms

TermDefinition
absolutism doctrine of government by a single absolute ruler; autocracy
absurdism doctrine that we live in an irrational universe
agnosticism doctrine that we can know nothing beyond material phenomina
anarchism doctrine that all governments should be abolished
anthropomorphism attribution of human qualities to non-human things
asceticism doctrine that self-denial of the body permits spiritual enlightenment
aethism belief that there is no God
capitalism doctrine that private ownership and free markets should govern economics
collectivism doctrine of communal control of means of production
conservatism belief in maintaining political and social traditions
deism belief in God but rejection of religion
determinism doctrine that events are predetermined by preceding events or laws
dualism doctrine that the universe is controlled by one good and evil force
egalitarianism belief that humans ought to be equal in rights and privileges
empiricism doctrine that experiences of the senses is the only source of knowledge
existentialism doctrine of human responsibility in an unfathomable human universe
fatalism doctrine that events are fixed and humans are powerless
gnosticism belief that freedom derives solely from knowledge
hedonism belief that pleasure is the highest good
historicism belief that all phenomena is historically determined
humanism belief that human interests and mind are paramount
humanitarianism doctrine that the highest moral obligation is to improve human welfare
idealism belief that our experiences of the world consist of ideas
immoralism rejection of morality
individualism belief that individual interests and rights are paramount
liberalism doctrine of social change and tolerance
libertarianism doctrine that personal liberty is the highest value
materialism belief that matter is the only extant substance
mechanism belief that life is explainable by mechanical forces
monism belief that all things can be placed in one category
naturalism belief that the world can be explained in terms of natural forces
nihilism a doctrine that denies any objective ground of truth and especially moral truth
objectivism doctrine that all reality is objective
optimism doctrine that we live in the best of all possible worlds
pessimism doctrine that the universe is essentially evil
pluralism belief that reality consists of several different entities
positivism doctrine that that which is not observable is not knowable
pragmaticism doctrine emphasizing the practical value of philosophy
rationalism belief that reason is the fundamental source of knowledge
realism doctrine that elements of cognition are real
reductionism belief that complex phenomena are reducible to simple ones
romanticism belief that sentimental feeling is an artistic expression
skepticism doctrine that true knowledge is always uncertain
socialism doctrine of centralized state control of wealth and property
solipsism theory that self-existence is the only certainty
stoicism belief in indifference to pleasure of pain
subjectivism doctrine that all knowledge is subjective
theism belief in the existence of God
transcendentalism theory that emphasizes that which transcends perception
utilitarianism belief that utility of actions determines moral value
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