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wgeow

chapter 1 vocab

TermDefinition
1. Geography The study of the earth's surface and the processes that shape it, the connections between places, and the copmlex relationships between people and their environments
2. GIS A geographic information system, which uses computer technology to collect and analyze data about the earth's surface in order to solve geographic problems
3. absolute location The position on the earth in which a place can be found
4. hemisphere a half of the earth; the Equator divides the Northern and Southern hemispheres; the Prime Meridian divides the Eastern and Western hemispheres
5. relative location The position of a place on earth in relation to another place
6. character of a place The physical and human characteristics that help distinguish a place from other places
7. perception a viewpoint that is influenced by one's own culture and exxperience
8. formal region a group of places that have similar attributes, for example, a political region
9. functional region A group of places connected by movement, for example, the region drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries
10. perceptual region A group of places that is defined by people's feelings and attitudes
11. core The earth's center, consisting of very hot metal that is dense and solid in the inner core
12. mantle A thick layer of mostly solid rock beneath the earth's crust that surrounds the earth's core
13. crust The solid, rocky, surface layer of the earth
14. lithosphere The surface features of the earth, including soil, rocks, and landforms
15. atmosphere The layer of gases, water vapor, and other substances above the earth
16. hydrosphere The water contained in the oceans,, lakes, rivers, and under the ground
17. biosphere The world of plants, animals, and other living things in earth's land and waters
18. continent Any of the seven large landmasses of the earth's surface: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America
19. relief The differences in elevation, or height, of the land-forms in any particular area
20. plate tectonics The theory that the earth's outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates, or slabs of rock whose constant movement explains earthquakes and volcanic activity
21. continental drift theory The idea that continents slowly shift their positions due to movement of the tectonic plates on which they ride
22. Ring of Fire A ring of volcanic mountains surrounding the Pacific Ocean
23. weathering The chemical or mechanical process by which rock is gradually broken down, eventually becoming soil
24. mechanical weathering The actual breaking up or physical weakening of rock by forces such as ice and roots
25. chemical weathering The process by which the actual chemical structure of rock is changed, usually when water and carbon dioxide cause a breakdown of the rock
26. acid rain Rain whose concentration of chemicals, usually from industrial pollution, pollutes water, kills animal and plant life, and eats away at the surface of stone and rock; a form of chemical weathering
27. erosion The movement of weathered materials, including gravel, soil, and sand, usually caused by water, wind, and glaciers
28. sediment particles of soil and rock carried and deposited by water, wind, or ice
29. loess Fine-grained, mineral-rich loam, dust,or silt deposited by the wind
30. glacier A huge, slow-moving mass of snow and ice
31. moraine A ridge-like mass of rock, gravel, sand, and clay carried and deposited by a glacier
Created by: daviddunham
 

 



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