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World Geo

Chapter 1 Vocab

Geography The study of the earth's surface and the processes that shape it, the connections between places, and the complex relationships between people and their environments
GIS A geographic information system, which uses computer technology to collect and analyze data about the earth's surface in order to solve geographic problems
absolute location The position on the earth in which a place can be found
hemisphere half of the world
relative location the relation of a location to other places
character of a place a place's physical and human characteristics
perception a viewpoint that is influenced by one's own culture and experiences
formal region areas in which certain characteristics are found throughout the area
functional regions a central place and the surrounding places affected by it
perceptual regions an area defined by people's feelings and attitudes about the area(s)
core The earth's center, consisting of very hot metal that is dense and solid in the inner core and molten, or liquid, in the outer core
mantle A thick layer of mostly solid rock beneath the earth's crust that surrounds the earth's core
lithosphere The surface features of the earth, including soil, rocks, and landforms
biosphere The world of plants, animals, and other living things in earth's land and waters
atmosphere The layer of gases, water vapor, and other substances above the earth
hydrosphere The water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, and under the ground
biosphere The world of plants, animals, and other living things in earth's land and waters
continental drift theory The idea that continents slowly shift their positions due to movement of the tectonic plates on which they ride
continent Any of the seven large landmasses of the earth's surface: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America
ring of fire A ring of volcanic mountains surrounding the Pacific Ocean
relief The differences in elevation, or height, of the land forms in any particular area
plate tectonics The theory that the earth's outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates, or slabs of rock, whose constant movement explains earthquakes and volcanic activity
weathering The chemical or mechanical process by which rock is gradually broken down, eventually becoming soil
mechanical weathering The actual breaking up of physical weakening of rock by forces such as ice and roots
chemical weathering The process by which the actual chemical structure of rock is changed, usually when water and carbon dioxide cause a breakdown of the rock
acid rain Rain whose high concentration of chemicals, usually form industrial plooution, pollutes water, kills plant and animal life, and eats away at the surface of stone and rock; a form of chemical wethering
erosion the movement of weathered materials, including gravel, soil, and sand, usually caused by water, wind, and glaciers
sediment Particles of soil and rock carried and deposited by water, wind, of ice
loess Fine-grained, mineral-rich loam, dust, or silt deposited by the wind
glacier A huge, slow moving mass of snow and ice,
moraine A ridge-like mass of rock, gravel, sand, and clay carried and depostited by a glacier
Created by: Kueson