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Digital Imaging 2

Module 2

After scanning the PSP's bar code, the software of the plate-reading device associates what? The patient's information with a specific image.
Scanning the bar code is extremely important to ensure that the __________ is linked to the correct __________ and tells the computer software what type of __________ ________ to use for an image of a particular __________ structure. Image; Patient; Processing codes; anatomical
The _____-_________ __________ is an extremely important part of _________-_________ digital radiography. Bar-Code sticker; Cassette-Based
The unique code on a PSP plate associates what with what? An individual patient and a specific exam
Which device allows for increased scanning precision compared to a mechanical arm? A rotating polygonal mirror and point scanner
In a PSP plate reader, the _________ _________ collects the light and directs it into a device called a _____________ _______. Light Guide; Photomultiplier Tube
The photomultiplier tube of a PSP plate reader converts the light into an __________ __________ which is then ___________ by the _________. Electronic Signal; Digitized; ADC
When a PSP plate is ready for image extraction a _______ ______ strikes the plate and interacts with the _________ in the __________ ________ releasing the _________ trapped there in the form of _________. This energy trapped is the _______ ______. laser beam; Phosphors; Phosphor layer; Energy; Light; Latent Image
As the energy in the phosphor layer of a PSP plate is released as light, a ________ _________ collects the _______ photons and sends them to the ___________ ______ which and then the _______ where the electronic signal is converted to a _________ _______. Light guide; Light; Photomultiplier tube; ADC; Digital Signal
Any remaining energy left on a PSP plate after digitizing the light photons is removed during the ________ process when exposing the plate to ______ ______ ______ removes the remaining __________. Erasure; Bright White Light; Electrons
When using a Flat Panel Receptor, the technologist doesn't touch what? Plate Reader or image detector (what the hell is an "image detector"?)
Each DEL in a Flat Panel Detector is a _________. Pixel
The Detector Element (DEL) in a Flat Panel Detector collects ________ that are extracted from the ___________ ________ and are converted into a ____________ _______ by an _______. This is the process that creates the image that is displayed on the monitor Electrons; Detector Assembly; Digital Value; ADC
________ size controls the recorded detail or spatial resolution for Flat Panel Detectors and cannot be changed by the Technologist. DEL size
CCD's and CMOS both need a __________ to convert __________ photons into __________. Scintillator; X-ray photons into light
When ________ strikes the CCD, __________ are released by the CCD _________ in proportion to the ___________ striking it. Light; Electrons; Silicon; Light
With CCD's, when the electrons are released in proportion to the light striking it, __________ of charged ___________ are moved one row at a time by __________ the ___________ of adjacent _________. Packets of charged electrons are moved one row at a time by varying the voltage of adjacent rows.
As the computer analyzes the image data that the ADC extracts from the PSP plate, a key step for the PSP receptor is recognizing _____________ ________ _________. Exposure Field Borders
A PSP plate reader scans the ___________plate and ________ the exposed and unexposed areas? Entire plate; Both
What can happen if the PSP plate reader does not recognize exposure or collimation border? The data analysis will include all the information on the plate and will result in a poor image.
Histograms graphically represent a collection of ___________ values extracted from the __________. Exposure; Receptor
The X axis of a histogram is the __________ line representing _____________ ___________. Horizontal; Receptor Exposure
The Y axis of a histogram is the ___________ line representing the _________ of _____________ per _____________. Vertical; Number of pixels per exposure.
A Type 3 Histogram is unique because it takes into account a significant ___________ object such as a ___________ hip or stomach full of __________. Attenuating; Prosthetic; Barium
With the Type 3 histogram, the attenuating object adds an additional ____________ to an otherwise normally distributed histogram. Section
A Neural Histogram compares the exposure from the receptor with what? Two or more predefined histogram data values
Rescaling the image pixel values to display properly doesn't prevent overexposure of the ___________. Patient
Due to Automatic rescaling, the technologist has no visual cue of __________________. Overexposure
Most PSP systems provide an EI that _____________ can use to determine the approximate level of __________ to a __________. Technologists; Exposure to a receptor
What is used to calculate an EI value? A histogram analysis of the distribution of radiation intensities.
An EI represents an approximation of the dose received by the _____________. Receptor
Fuji and Konica call their EI's an _____ _______, which represents a ___________ ___________. S Number; Sensitivity Number
Philips uses ______ for their exposure indicator which stands for ___________ __________. EI; Exposure Index
Fuji, Konica and Philips all use values for their EI's that are __________ ___________ to the exposure received. Inversely proportional
With Fuji, Konica and Phillips the higher the exposure received would do what with their EI's and what is the EI used by each? Higher exposures = Lower EI numbers; Fuji and Konica uses the term S Number for sensitivity number; Phillips uses EI for Exposure Index
What does Agfa use for their exposure indicators? lgM = logarithm of the Histogram Median
For Agfa, as the exposure increases what happens to their exposure indicators? lgM increases with increasing exposure values
Canon uses an exposure indicator known as _______ and the value is ________ __________ to the exposure value. REX; Directly proportional
The Siemens Flat Panel Detector uses an Exposure indicator value of _______. EXI
If a PSP plate is processed with the wrong anatomical menu what can happen? The image may be processed with an incorrect exposure indicator (EI) value and could display an inaccurate brightness and contrast.
Optimal EI ranges for PSP systems are best set by the _____________ who can evaluate the level of acceptable __________ which is very similar to the way images are evaluated in a __________ environment. Radiologist; Noise; Analog
A device that may be linked directly to the x-ray unit that measures the actual patient entrance skin dose with accurately calibrated equipment is a ______ ______ _________. Dose Area Product Meter (DAP)
The DAP meter is useful in determining _________ ________ dose but does not indicate the amount of ___________ received by the ___________ ___________. Entrance Skin Dose; Exposure; Image Receptor.
Currently, there are _______ standards established for using a DAP meter No
Film digitizers can contribute additional _____________ to digitized images if the digitizer isn't ____________ __________ or when there is ___________ or ________ on the film. Artifacts; Properly maintained; Dust or dirt
When an excessively dusty or dirty film is digitized the particles deposited into the digitizer will _________ the image along with all ____________ ___________ fed into the equipment. Degrade; Subsequent Images
When an image is acquired that has metal such as a prosthesis the _________ will be _____________ and indicate that the image was ____________ and will not display the proper _________ and __________. EI; Miscalculated; Underexposed; Contrast and Brightness
A Histogram consists of a range of data values from low to high __________, depending on the ____________ and ____________ factors. Exposures; Technique and Subject Factors
A PSP system will scan the __________ plate while a Flat-Panel receptor only analyzes the ___________ area inside the _____________ ___________. Entire; Exposed; Collimated Border
Created by: foster1317