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Intro to Nuclear Engineering Lecture 1

What is a nuclide? A type of atom characterized by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of every atom of this type. (Ex: Carbon 12 is a nuclide but it's also an isotope of carbon)
What is an isotope? Atoms with the same number of protons but containing different numbers of electrons.
Why do protons and neutrons stick together in the nucleus of an atom? They are bound together by the strong nuclear force. (Very attractive force but it only acts at a range of 2e-15m).
What is the mass defect? Mass defect is the difference between the mass of the constituents of the atom minus the mass of the bound nucleus.
Equation for mass energy equivalence: E = mc^2
Equation for binding energy: Binding energy = (mass defect)c^2
What is binging energy? It is a mass defect between the weight of the nucleus and the individual (unbound) weights of its constituent nucleons.
What are the three ways a particle can decay to be more stable? Break apart, emit a particle, or change a neutron into a proton(or vice versa, usually accompanied by an emitted particle).
Alpha Decay When a particle emits an He nucleus. The particle looses 2 protons and 2 neutrons (4amu). Typical in large, unstable atoms. Z>90
Break Apart Typically happens only in nuclei with Z^2/A > 45
Change Nucleon Flavor AKA Beta Decay, common in nuclei with Z < 90. Negative beta decay is when a neutron is turned into a proton.
Nuclear Decay conserves: Nucleons, charge, total energy, and angular momentum (spin).
Decay constant (lamba). The probability that a single nuclei will decay per unit time.
Activity (of the sample) Number of decays/second (measured in Curies or Becquerel)
What is radiation? Energy transmitted in the form of waves or particles.
Created by: omykhayliv