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Stack #130115

QuestionAnswer
What is the number of waves passing a given point per unit of time? frequency
what is the distance between 2 successive crests or troughs? wavelength
As the energy of electromagnetic radiation increases, what happens to the frequency, wavelength, and speed? increases, decreases, stays the same
The shape of all electromagnetic radiation is what? sine curve
The normal range of diagnostic x-ray photon wavelength is what? 0.1 to 1.0 Angstrom
The unit of energy of a photon is the what? eV (electron volt)
Does the wavelength of the photon impact beam quality? yes
Does the wavelength of the photon impact beam penetration? yes
Does the wavelength of the photon impact beam energy? yes
The production of x-ray _______ results from the rapid deceleration of fast moving __________ interacting with the target materials? photons, electrons
Is the quality or penetrability of the x-ray photon is affected by changes in KVP? yes
Is the quality or penetrability of the x-ray photon is affected by changes in mA? no
Is the quality or penetrability of the x-ray photon is affected by changes in time? no
Is the quality or penetrability of the x-ray photon is affected by changes in distance? yes
The dual nature of x-ray energy is the concept that the photons behaving as what two things? particle and a wave
What is the charge of the cathode? negative
What is the charge of the anode? positive
The cathode consists of what two things? filament and a focusing cup
The process of boiling electrons from the filament is what? thermionic emissions
The filament is made of what? tungsten
The focusing cup is made of what? nickel
The anode (target) is made of what? tungsten and rhenium alloy
What stops the electrons abruptly to form x-rays? target
What is the stream of electrons that crosses the tube from the cathode to the anode? tube current
The rotating anodes rotate at a set speed at what range? 3,000 to 10,000 RPM
Why is a rotating anode better than a stationary? Can withstand high heat levels
What components in the tube make the anode rotate? stator and rotor
What is the physical area of the target that is bombarded with electrons during an exposure. actual focal spot
Why do we want the x-ray tube to be a vacuum? Allows efficient flow of electrons from the cathode to anode
What is the major purpose of the tube housing? Reduce leakage radiation
What are the two interactions that take place on the target tube? Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic
In the Bremsstralung interaction, the incident electron interacts with what and results in what? electromagnetic field surrounding the nucleus which causes the electron to slow down and strong nuclear force keeps them apart and deflects electron
For Bremsstrahlung interaction, what determines how much energy is given up? amount of energy given up depends on how close it comes to the nucleus. the closer it comes the more energy
Below 70 KVP (with a tungsten): what percentage of the beam is characteristic and what percent is Brems? O%; 100%
For the Characteristic interaction, which electron is ejected and what happens because of it? the inner shell electron is ejected causing the outer electrons to drop down to fill the holes and energy is released to do this.
Above 70 KVP, what percentage of the beam is characteristic and what perctage of the beam is Brems? 15% is characteristic and 85% is Brems
What is the highest energy of the photon beam when .05 sec, 400 mA, and 70 KVP are utilized as the exposure factors? 70 KVP
When electrons are boiled off of the filament, they form cloud around the filament called what? space charge
When electrons strike the target, what percentage is heat and what percentage is x-ray? 99% heat and 1% x-ray
KVP represents what and impacts what of the beam? potential difference; quality
As KVP increases, beam quality does what, and the penetrability of the beam does what? increases, increases
MA is the unit used to measure what? tube current
With an increase in mA, the quantity of electrons does what, and the quantity of photons produced does what? increase, increase
With an increase in exposure time, the quantity of electrons does what and the quantity of photons produced does what? increase, increase
The line focus principle describes the relationship between what two things? actual focal spot size and effective focal spot size
What is the actual focal spot? size of the area on the anode target that is exposed to electrons from the tube current
What is the effective focal spot? focial spot size as measured directly under anode target
The smaller the anode angle results in what effective focal spot? smaller
The anode hill effect describes how the x-ray beam has greater intensity on which side of the x-ray tube? cathode
What is utilized to harden the beam? Filtration
What plus what equals total filtration? inherent filtration plus added filtration
Regulations state that tubes operating over 70 KVP must have a total filtration of what? 2.5 mm Aluminum
What is used to measure filtration? (HVL) Half-value layer
What is the amount of heat produced by any given exposure? Heat unit (HU)
What is the formula for heat units? mA x time x KVP x generator factor = HU
Who and when were x-rays discovered? Nov 8, 1895
Wavelength and frequency is directly or inversley proportional? inversley
What is needed to make x-rays? source of electrons, way to accelerate the electrons, and way to stop the electrons
Created by: quietone055