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Ch. 1 Bontrager

Ch. 1 Bontrager - semester 1/ positioning

Anatomy study of the structure of the human body
Physiology processes and functions of the body or how it works
Structural organization of the body atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, system, organism
Cells the basic structural and functional unit of all living tissue
Tissues cohesive groups of similar cells
4 basic types of tissues Epithelial, connective. muscular, nervous
Epithelial Tissue tissues that cover internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and organs
Connective Tissue supportive tissues that bind together and support various structures
Muscular Tissue make up the substance of muscle
Nervous Tissue make up the substance of nerves and nerve centers
Organs assemblies of tissues are joined to perform a specific function
System a group or association of organs
Organism the 10 systems of the body when functioning together make up the total organism - one living being
10 How many body systems are there?
Osteology the study of bones
Arthrology the study of joints
206 How many bones in the human body?
Axial skeleton all bones that lie on or near the central axis of the body
80 How many bones in the axial skeleton?
Appendicular skeleton all bones of the upper and lower limbs (extremities) and the shoulder and pelvic girdles
126 How many bones in the appendicular skeleton?
Sesamoid bones a special type of small, oval-shaped bone that is embedded in certain tendons(most often near joints)
Name the sesamoid bones: 2 patellae, base of first toe, near the anterior palmar surface of the hand at base of thumb
Name the classification of bones by shape: long, short, irregular, flat
Long bones bones that consist of a body and two ends or extremities - found only in appendicular skeleton
Short bones roughly cuboidal bones found only in the wrists(8 carpal) and ankles(7 tarsal)
Flat Bones bones that consist of 2 plates of compact bone with cancellous bone and marrow between them - sternum, ribs, scapulae, calvarium(skull cap)
Irregular Bones bones that have peculiar shapes - vertebrae, facial bones, bones at base of cranium, bones of pelvis
Medullary Cavity body of the long bone that is hollow that contains fatty yellow matter
Periosteum dense fibrous membrane that covers bone - except at the articulating surfaces
Hyaline cartilage clear glassy cartilage that covers the articulating ends of bones
Spongy or cancellous bone contains red marrow in long bone where red blood cells are produced
Ossification the process by which bones form within the body
Where are red blood cells produced? sternum, vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, ends of long bones
Intramembranous ossification occurs rapidly and takes place in bones that are needed for protection, such as flat bones of the skull cap
Endochondral ossification much slower ossification - occurs in most parts of the skeleton, especially in the long bones
What age do long bones reach maturity? 25 years
Functional Classifications of Joints Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, Diarthrosis
Structural Classification of Joints Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial
Synarthrosis immovable joint - ex: skull suture
Amphiarhrosis joint with limited movement - ex: distal tibiofibular joint
Diarthrosis freely movable joint - ex: upper and lower limbs
Fibrous Joints- Syndesmosis joint: fibrous types of articulations that are held together by interosseous ligaments and slender fibrous cords that allow slight movement - ex: distal tibiofibular joint
Fibrous Joints- Sutures found only between bones in the skull - movement is very limited
Fibrous Joints- Gomphoses joint: a conical process is inserted into a socketlike portion of bone - ex: roots of teeth
Cartilaginous Joints- Symphyses joint: presence of a broad flattened disk of fibrocartilage between 2 contigous bony surfaces - ex: vertebrae
Cartilaginous Joints- Synchondroses temporary form of a joint wherein the connecting hyaline cartilage is converted into bone at adulthood - ex: epiphyseal plates
Synovial Joints Freely movable joints, most often found in the upper and lower limbs, which are charachterized by a fibrous capsule that contains synovial fluid.
Plane(gliding) joints synovial joint that allows the least movement - ex: intermetacarpal, carpometacarpal, intercarpal joints of the hand and wrist AND atlantoaxial joints between C1 and C2
Ginglymus(hinge)joints joint surfaces are molded together in such a way that they permit Flexion and Extension - ex: elbow and finger joints
Trochoid(pivot) joints joint formed by a bony pivot-like process that is surrounded by a ring of ligaments - allows rotational movement around a single axis - ex: C1-C2, radioulnar joints
Ellipsoid(condyloid) joints joint movement occurs primarily in one plane and is combined with a slight degree of rotation at an axis - flexion, extension, abduction, adduction ex: wrist
Sellar(saddle) joint joint where ends of bones are shaped concave/convex and are positioned opposite each other - ex: 1st carpometacarpal joint (thumb)
Spheroidal(ball and socket) joint Ball and socket joint that allows the greatest freedom of movement - ex: hip and shoulder
Bicondylar joints joint movement in a single direct - ex: knee and TMJ of jaw
Radiograph IMAGE of a patient's anatomic parts
Radiography PROCESS and PROCEDURES of producing a radiograph
Image Receptor (IR) the device that captures the RAD image that exits the patient
Central Ray (CR) the center-most portion of the x-ray beam emitted from the x-ray tube
Anatomical Position Upright position with arms adducted down, palms forward, head and feet straight ahead
Viewing Radiographs the patient is facing the viewer in anatomical position
Sagittal plane any longitudinal plane that divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal plane any longitudinal plane that divides the body into EQUAL right and left parts
Coronal plane any longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Midcoronal plane any longitudinal plane that divides the body into EQUAL anterior and posterior parts
Horizontal(axial) Plane any transverse plane that passes thru the body at right angles to the longitudinal plane - dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Oblique plane a longitudinal or transverse plane that is at an angle or slant and is not parallel to the sagittal, coronal or horizontal plane
Longitudinal section - sagittal, coronal and oblique section that runs lengthwise in direction of the long axis of the body or any of it's parts - regardless of body position (erect or recumbent)
Transverse or axial sections (cross-sections) sectional images are at right angles along any point of the longitidunal axis of the body or it's parts
Base plane of skull precise transverse plane from infraorbital margins to (EAM) external auditory meatus
Occlusal plane horizontal plane formed by the biting surfaces of the upper and lower teeth with the jaws closed
Posterior or Dorsal refers to the back half of the patient includes bottoms of feet and back of hands
Anterior or Ventral refers to the front half of the patient includes tops of feet and palms of hands
Plantar sole or posterior of the foot
Dorsal foot (dorsum pedis) top or anterior surface of foot
Dorsal Hand (dorsum manus) back or posterior surface of hand
Palmar refers to the palm of the hand
Projection the positioning term that describes the direction or path of the CR of the x-ray beam
Posteroanterior(PA) projection the projection of the CR from posterior to anterior
Anterioposterior(AP) projection the projection of the CR from anterior to posterior
AP oblique projection an AP projection of the upper or lower limb that is rotated (must also include a qualifying term that indicates which way it is rotated such as medial or lateral
PA oblique projection a PA projection of the upper or lower limb that is rotated (must also include a qualifying term that indicates which way it is rotated such as medial or lateral
Mediolateral or Lateromedial projections a lateral projection described by the path of the CR.
Supine position position: lying on back facing upward
Prone position position: lying on abdomen facing downward
Erect position Position: upright position, standing or sitting
Recumbent position Lying down in any position - supine, prone, or on side
Dorsal recumbent position lying on back (supine)
ventral recumbent position lying on stomach (prone)
Lateral recumbent position lying on side (right or left)
Trendelenburg position recumbent position with body tilted with head lower than feet
Fowler's position recumbent position with body tilted with head higher than feet
Sim's position recumbent oblique position with patient lying on left anterior side, right knee and thigh flexed, left arm extended down behind back
Modified Sim's position recumbent oblique position with patient lying on left anterior side, right knee and thigh flexed, both arms on anterior side
Lithotomy position recumbent supine position with knees and hips flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports
Lateral position side of or side view described by the body part closest to the IR or the part from which the CR exits
Oblique position an angled position in which neither the sagittal nor the coronal body plane is perpendicular or at right angle to the IR. - described by the body part closest to the IR or the part from which the CR exits
Decubitus position a position where a patient is lying down on a horizontal surface - the CR is horizontal and across the table form the IR
Left lateral decubitus position (AP projection) patient lying on left side, x-ray beam is directed horizontally from anterior to posterior
Right lateral decubitus position (PA projection) patient lying on right side, x-ray beam is directed horizontally from posterior to anterior
Dorsal decubitus position (left lateral) patient is lying on back, x-ray beam is directed horizontally exiting on the left side
Ventral decubitus position (right lateral) patient is lying on front side, x-ray beam is directed horizontally exiting on the right side
Axial projection any angle of the CR of 10% or more along the long axis of the body or body part
Axial (superoinferior) projection CR enters superiorly and exits inferiorly for special nasal bone projection
AP axial projection (CR 30 degrees caudal) CR enters skull at an angle of 30 degrees aimed toward feet
Inferosuperior axial projection CR enters shoulder inferiorly and exits superiorly
Tangential projection CR skims the side(curve or surface of body part) Ex: side of zygomatic arch OR the front of the patella
AP axial chest lordotic projection the the long axis of the body rather than the CR is angled - CR is anterior to posterior going thru chest
Transthoracic lateral shoulder projection (R lat. position) patient is erect with R shoulder against IR and left arm over head. CR enters thorax laterally
AP or dorsoplantar projection of foot CR enters foot from top to bottom at an angle
Axial plantodorsal projection of calcaneous CR enters heel at an angle and exits back of foot
Parietocanthial projection (PA Waters) Patient is lying prone with head tilted up - CR enters top of skull and exits under nose/above lip
Acantioparietal projection Patient is lying supine - CR enters at an angle under nose/above lip and exits top of skull
Submentovertex (SMV) Projection Patient is erect with head tilted back so top of skull is against IR on wall - CR enters horizontally under chin and exits top/middle of skull
Medial body part situated toward the median plane
Lateral body part situated away from to the median plane
Proximal near the source
Distal fartherest from the source
Cephalad toward the head
Caudad toward the feet
Interior inside of something, nearer to the center
Exterior situated on or near the outside
Intra- means within or inside - prefix
Inter- between things - prefix
Exo- outside or outward -prefix
Superficial nearer the skin surface
Deep father away from the skin surface
Ipsilateral on the same side of the body
Contralateral on different sides of the body
Flexion decrease the angle of a joint
Extension increase the angle of a joint
Hyperextension extending a joint beyond the straight or neutral position
Ulnar deviation turn to the ulnar side
radial deviation turn to the radial side
Dorsiflexion decrease the angle(flex) between the top of the foot and the lower leg
Plantar Flexion moving the foot and the toes downward from normal position
Eversion outward stress movement of the foot at the ankle joint
Inversion inward stress movement of the foot
Valgus bending of the part outward or away from the midline
Varus knock kneed or bending of a part inward toward the midline
Medial(internal) rotation rotation or turning of a body part with movement of the anterior aspect of the part toward the inside or median plane
Lateral rotation rotation of an anterior body part toward the outside or away from the median plane
Abduction movement of the arm or leg away from the body
Adduction movement of arm or leg toward the body
Supination rotational movement of the hand into the anatomical position (palm up)
Pronation rotational movement of the hand into the opposite of the anatomical position (palm down)
Protraction movement forward from a normal position
Retraction Movement backward or being drawn back
Elevation lifting, raising or moving of a part superiorly
Depression letting down, lowering, or moving of a part inferiorly
Circumduction to move around in the form of a circle
Rotate turn or rotate a body part on it's axis
Tilt slanting movement with respect to the long axis
Position term that indicates the patient's general physical position
Projection describes to the path of the CR
Created by: studyRAD
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