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1-200 Spring 08

Includes Brand Name, Generic Name, Therapeutic Class, and Mechanism of Action

QuestionAnswerFlap 3
Lortab hydrocodone and APAP/ Narcotic Analgesic hydrocodone: opiod receptor agonist acetaminophen: analgesic effect unknown, affects hypothalamic heat regulating center (antipyretic)
Synthroid levothyroxine/ thyroid hormone levothyroxine (T4) replacement
Xanax alprazolam/ antianxiety benzodiazepine: binds to receptors in the central nervous system (CNS)
Micro-K, K-Dur, Klor-Con potassium chloride/ potassium supplement potassium supplement
Glucophage metformin hydrochloride/ antidiabetic main effect believed to be inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis (multiple MOAs suspected)
Zestril, Prinivil lisinopril/ ace inhibitor ACE-I (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor)
Ultram tramadol/ analgesic binds to opioid receptor, and also inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine(NE) and seratonin (5-HT)
Lasix furosemide/ diuretic "loop diuretic": blocks sodium and chloride reabsorption from kidney tubules
Lipitor atorvastatin/ antihyperlipidemic inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) and increases hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors
Percocet oxycodone and APAP/ narcotic analgesic oxycodone: opioid receptor agonist acetaminophen: analgesic effect unknown; affects hypothalamic heat regulating center (antipyretic)
Tenormin atenolol/ beta blocker beta-1 receptor antagonist
Toprol XL metoprolol succinate/ beta blocker beta-1 selective receptor antagonist
Lopressor metoprolol tartrate/ beta blocker beta-1 receptor antagonist
HydroDiuril hydrochlorothiazide/ diuretic Diuretic effect: blocks reabsorption of sodium and chloride from renal tubules Antihypertensive effect unknown
Coumadin warfarin/ anticoagulant inhibits vitamin K dependent clotting factors
Norvasc amlodipine/ calcium channel blocker dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker
Amoxil amoxicillin/ antibiotic beta lactam antibiotic; inhibits cell wall synthesis of mucopeptide
OxyContin oxycodone/ narcotic analgesic opioid receptor agonist
Zithromax azithromycin/ antibiotic macrolide antibiotic; inhibits microbial protein synthesis
Darvocet propoxyphene and APAP/ narcotic analgesic propoxyphene: binds to opioid receptor (like codeine, hydrocodone)
Zoloft sertraline/ antidepressant selective seratonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
Zantac ranitidine/ H2 antihistamine Histamine-2 receptor antagonist
Zocor simvastatin/ antihyperlipidemic inhibits HMG-CoA and increases hepatic LDL receptors
Lexapro escitalopram/ antidepressant SSRI
Nexium esomeprazole/ antisecretory proton pump inhibitor (PPI)
Seroquel quetiapine/ antipsychotic Serotonin(5HT), dopamine(DA), histamine and alpha receptor blockers
Proventil albuterol/ antiasthmatic/bronchodilator beta-2 selective receptor agonist
Singulair montelukast/ antiasthmatic Leukotriene receptor antagonist
Plavix clopidogrel/ platelet inhibitor adenosine diphosphate(ADP) receptor antagonist
Deltasone prednisone/ steroid/anti-inflammatory inhibits phospholipase, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes (mediators of inflammation)
Effexor venlafaxine/ antidepressant potentiates activity of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine
Elavil amitriptyline/ antidepressant increases 5HT and NE levels (prevents reuptake)
Ativan lorazepam/ antianxiety benzodiazepine: binds to receptors in the CNS
Neurontin gabapentin/ antiepileptic MOA unknown
Glucotrol glipizide/ antidiabetic Sulfonylurea: increases pancreatic insulin secretion
Naprosyn naproxen/ NSAID inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Wellbutrin bupropion/ antidepressant inhibits DA and NE uptake
Desyrel trazodone/ antidepressant MOA unknown; believed to increase serotonin levels
Prilosec omeprazole/ antisecretory PPI
Dyazide triamterene and HCTZ/ diuretic Triamterene: inhibits the reabsorption of sodium in exchange for potassium and hydrogen ions in the renal tubule
Flexeril cyclobenzaprine/ muscle relaxant reduces motor activity in the brainstem
Duragesic fentanyl transdermal system/ narcotic analgesic opioid receptor agonist
Prozac fluoxetine/ antidepressant SSRI
Fosamax alendronate/ osteoporosis agent osteoclast inhibitor
Vasotec enalapil/ ace inhibitor ACE-I
Prevacid lansoprazole/ antisecretory PPI
Lantus insulin glargine/ antidiabetic binds to insulin receptor (24 hour insulin)
Prempro conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate/ estrogen/progestin combination hormone estrogen and progesterone receptor agonists, respectively
Lanoxin digoxin/ cardiovascular inhibits sodium-potassium ATPase
Valium diazepam/ antianxiety Benzodiazepine(BZD): same as Xanax
Keflex cephalexin/ antibiotic cephalosporin: inhibits cell wall synthesis
Paxil paroxetine/ anti-depressant SSRI
Reglan metoclopramide/ anti-emetic anti-emetic: inhibits DA receptors, which increases vomiting threshold GI motility stimulant: cholinergic activity becomes greater than that of dopamine, which increases smooth muscle response to ACh(Acetylcholine) and causes GI motility
Cardizem diltiazem/ calcium channel blocker Non-DHP calcium channel blocker
Ambien zolpidem/ hyonotic agonist of benzodiazepine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) subunit
Celexa citalopram/ antidepressant SSRI
Advair fluticasone & salmeterol/ antiasthmatic fluticasone: inhibits phospholipase, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes salmeterol: beta-2 receptor agonist
Zestoretic, Prinzide lisinopril & hydrochlorothiazide/ antihypertensive lisinopril: ACE-I HCTZ: loop diuretic
Vytorin simvastatin & ezetimibe/ antihyperlipidemic simvastatin: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor ezetimibe: cholesterol absorption inhibitor
Zyrtec cetirizine/ antihistamine H-1 receptor antagonist
Fioricet APAP, butalbital & caffeine/ analgesic butalbital: causes sensory depression by inhibiting conduction in areas of the brain caffeine: stimulates CNS by increasing levels of cAMP
Diflucan fluconazole/ antifungal inhibits fungal steroid production
Ortho-Tricyclen norgestimate & ethinyl estradiol/ oral contraceptive norgestimate: progesterone receptor agonist EE: estrogen receptor agonist
Depakote divalproex/ antiepileptic & antipsychotic MOA unknown (may increase brain GABA levels)
Adderall amphetamine & dextroamphetamine/ CNS stimulant sympathetic amine with effects similar to epinephrine
Celebrex celecoxib/ NSAID Cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitor
Diovan valsartan/ AT2 antagonist angiotension-2 receptor blocker
Lotrel amlodipine & benazepril/ antihypertensive amlodipine: DHP calcium channel blocker benazepril: ACE-I
Allegra fexofenadine/ antihistamine H-1 receptor antagonist and inhibits histamine release
Klonopin clonazepam/ antiepileptic benzodiazepine: believed to enhance GABA activity
Augmentin amoxicillin & clavulanate/ antibiotic clavulanate(clavulanic acid): beta-lactamase inhibitor, which increases the antibacterial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics
Cymbalta duloxetine/ antidepressant SSNRI: selective seratonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Risperdal risperidone/ antipsychotic MOA unknown (affects serotonin and DA receptors
Levaquin levofloxacin/ antibiotic Quinolone antibiotic: inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis
Aldactone spironolactone/ diuretic aldosterone antagonist at the distal convoluted renal tubule
Lyrica pregabalin/ anticonvulsant MOA unknown (may bind to alpha-2 delta receptors in the CNS
Zyloprim allopurinol/ agent for gout xanthine oxidase inhibitor, which decreases uric acid production
Protonix pantoprazole/ antisecretory PPI
Actos pioglitazone/ antidiabetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist
Dilantin Kapseals extended phenytoin/ antiepileptic enhances neuronal sodium efflux
Kenalog triamcinolone acetonide topical/ corticosteroid inhibits phospholipase, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
Motrin ibuprofen/ NSAID inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Altace ramipril/ ACE-I ACE-I
Coreg carvedilol/ beta blocker non-selective beta blocker (blocks B-1, B-2, and alpha-1 receptors)
Verelan verapamil/ calcium channel blocker non-DHP calcium channel blocker
Estrace estradiol/ estrogen estrogen receptor agonist
Catapres clonidine/ antihypertensive alpha-2 receptor agonist
Soma carisoprodol/ muscle relaxant MOA unknown (works centrally to produce muscle relaxation)
Zetia ezetimibe/ antihyperlipidemic cholesterol absorption inhibitor
Amaryl glimepiride/ antidiabetic sulfonylurea: increases pancreatic insulin release
Flomax tamsulosin/ treats BPH alpha-1 receptor antagonist
Diovan-HCT valsartan & hydrocholorothiazide/ AT2 antagonist valsartan: angiotensin receptor-2 blocker HCTZ: diuretic
Humalog insulin lispro/ antidiabetic binds to insulin receptor (ultra short-acting insulin)
Flonase fluticasone/ nasal decongestant inhibits phospholipase, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
Tylenol w/ Codeine APAP & codeine phosphate/ analgesic same as hydocodone
Aricept donepezil/ antipsychotic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (Ach-I)
Mevacor lovastatin/ antihyperlipidemic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
Accupril quinapril/ ACE-I ACE-I
Miralax polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350/ laxative osmotic agent (causes water to be retained in the stool)
MS Contin morphine sulfate/ analgesic opioid receptor agonist
Lotensin benazepril/ ACE-I ACE-I
phenobarbital phenobarbital/ antiepileptic produces sensory cortex depression
Cleocin clindamycin/ antibiotic suppresses bacterial protein synthesis
Theo-Dur theophylline/ antiasthmatic, bronchodilator couses endogenous epinephrine release, inhibits histamine release, and may prevent release of SRS-A (slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis)
Pravachol pravastatin/ antihyperlipidemic HMG-CoA enzyme reductase inhibitor
Lamictal lamotrigine/ antiepileptic MOA unknown. may block neuronal sodium channels
Voltaren diclofenac/ NSAID inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Spiriva tiotropium/ antiasthmatic, bronchodilator anticholinergic, causing airway smooth muscle relaxation
Cogentin benztropine/ antiparkinson agent blocks cholinergic histamine receptors
Mobic meloxicam/ NSAID cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (COX-2 inhibitor)
Strattera atomoxetine/ treatment for ADHD selective NE reuptake inhibitor
Yasmin drospirenone & EE/ oral contraceptive drospirenone: progesterone receptor agonist EE: estrogen receptor agonist
Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 norethindrone and EE/ oral contraceptive norethindrone: PRA EE: ERA
Hytrin terazosin/ antihypertensive, BPH treatment alpha-1 receptor agonist
Avapro irbesartan/ ARB angiotensin- 1 receptor blocker
Veetids penicillin V potassium/ antibiotic inhibits cell wall mucopeptide synthesis
Lopid gemfibrozil/ antihyperlipidemic increases activity of lipprotein lipase
Skelaxin metaxalone/ muscle relaxant MOA unknown
Inderal propranolol/ beta blocker beta blocker
Zovirax acyclovir/ antiviral inhibits viral DNA replication
Benicar-HCT olmesartan and HCTZ/ antihypertensive ARB and diuretic
Adipex-P phentermine/ obesity management sympathomimetic amine, CNS stimulation and elevation of blood pressure
Bactroban mupirocin/ topical antibacterial inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
Aciphex rabeprazole/ PPI PPI
Pepcid famotidine/ H2 antihistamine H-2 receptor blocker
Imuran azathioprine/ immunosuppressant interferes with viral RNA and DNA precursors
Bentyl dicyclomine/ anticholinergic anticholinergic causing smooth muscle relaxation
Clozaril clozapine/ antipsychotic antagonist at anticholinergic, histaminergic, seratonergic, and adrenergic receptors. also blocks certain dopamine receptors
Biaxin clarithromycin/ antibiotic inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
methadone methadone/ analgesic opioid receptor agonist
Provera medroxyprogesterone/ progestin hormone progesterone receptor agonist
Requip ropinirole/ antiparkinson agent dopamine agonist
Prempro conjugated estrogens and progesterone/ estrogen, progestin combo estrogen and progesterone receptor agonists
Lithobid lithium carbonate/ antipsychotic MOA unknown, may antagonize release of NE and DA or increase their reuptake
BuSpar buspirone/ antianxiety dopamine and serotonin agonist
Omnicef cefdinir/ antibiotic inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis
Lunesta eszopiclone/ hypnotic agonis of GABA receptors in the CNS
Relafen nabumetone/ NSAID inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Allegra-D fexofenadine & pseudophed/ antiallergy fexofenadine: H1 receptor antagonist and inhibits histamine release
Niaspan niacin/ antihyperlipidemic enhances lipoprotein lipase activity
Bumex bumetanide/ diuretic loop diuretic: blocks sodium and chloride reabsorption from kidney tubules
Demadex torsemide/ diuretic loop diuretic: blocks sodium and chloride reabsorption from kidney tubules
Lotrisone clotrimazole & betamethasone/ topical antifungal increases permeability of fungal cell wall
Lomotil diphenoxylate & atropine/ antidiarrheal diphenoxylate: binds to intestinal opiate receptors, decreases GI mobility atropine: added intentionally to prevent abuse or overdosage of the diphenoxylate (also an antimuscarinic which decreases GI motility)
lactulose lactulose/ laxative digested into lactic acid, which increases osmotic pressure. (causes water to be absorbed into the stool, and loosens stool)
Monopril fosinopril/ ACE-I ACE-I
Guaifenex PSE guaifenesin & pseudoephedrine/ decongestant, expectorant guaifenesin: thins bronchial secretions, lubricating irritated respiratory tract
Flovent fluticasone/ antiasthmatic,steroid inhibits phospholipase, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes (mediators of inflammation)
Imitrex sumatriptan/ antimigrainous agent 5HT-1 receptor agonist
Antivert meclizine/ antivertigo agent antihistamine
Cozaar losartan/ angiotensin II Blocker ARB
Ditropan oxybutynin/ anticholinergic causes the smooth muscle of the bladder to relax
Detrol tolteridine/ antimuscarinic Muscarinic receptor antagonist
Combivent ipratropium & albuterol/ antiasthmatic, bronchodilator ipratropium: anticholinergic, which dilates bronchioles albuterol: beta-2 selective receptor agonist
Tricor fenofibrate/ antihyperlipidemic PPAR alpha agonist
Zyprexa olanzapine/ anti-psychotic MOA unknown: believed to antagonize effects of DA and 5HT
Crestor rosuvastatin/ antihyperlipidemic statin: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
Remeron mirtazapine/ antidepressant Increases central NE and 5HT activity
Procardia nifedipine/ CCB Dihydropyridine CCB
Imdur isosorbide mononitrate/ antianginal organic nitrate, which causes arterial and venous dilation
Topamax topiramate/ antiepileptic MOA unknown: believed to potentiate effects of GABA
Actonel risedronate/ osteoporosis agent Inhibits osteoclasts
Atrovent Ipratropium/ antiasthmatic, antiallergy anticholinergic, which dilates bronchioles
Medrol methylprednisone/ anti-inflammatory, steroid Inhibits phospholipase, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes (mediators of inflammation)
Tessalon Perles benzonatate/ antitussive suppresses cough by anesthetizing the stretch receptors in the respiratory tract
Ultracet tramadol & acetaminophen/ analgesic tramadol: binds to opioid receptor, and also inhibits reuptake of NE and 5HT
Sinequan doxepin/ antidepressant inhibits neuronal NE and 5HT reuptake
Ritalin methylphenidate/ CNS stimulant sympathetic amine with effects similar to epinephrine
Avandia rosiglitazone/ antidiabetic PPAR gamma agonist
Cipro ciprofloxacin/ antibiotic Quinolone antibiotic: inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis
Bactrim sulfamethoxazole & trimethoprim/ antibiotic sulfamethoxazole: inhibits production of dihydrofolic acid, which kills bacteria trimethoprim: interferes with the production of folic acid (bacteriocidal)
folic acid folic acid/ vitamin dietary supplement
Phenergan promethazine/ antihistamine, antitussive H1 receptor blocker
Macrobid(Macrodantin) nitrofurantoin/ antibacterial inhibits bacterial carbohydrate metabolism
Pyridium phenazopyridine/ urinary tract analgesic MOA unknown: exerts topical analgesic effect in the urinary tract
Hyzaar losartan &HCTZ/ antihypertensive losartan: ARB HCTZ: diabetic
Dilacor diltiazem/ CCB Non-dihydropyridine CCB
Vibramycin doxycycline/ antibiotic Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
Capoten Captopril/ ACE-I ACE-I
Tegretol carbamazepine/ antiepileptic decreases responsiveness at neuronal synapses
Concerta methylphenidate/ CNS stimulant sympathetic amine with effects similar to epinephrine
Trileptal oxcarbazepine/ antiepileptic Inhibits neuronal sodium channel efflux
Evista raloxifene/ osteoporosis agent selective estrogen receptor modifier(SERM). Only binds to certain estrogen receptors
Glucovance glyburide & metformin/ antidiabetic sulfonylurea: increases pancreatic secretion of insulin metformin: inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis
Namenda memantine/ antipsychotic NMDA receptor antagonist
Cardura doxazosin/ alpha blocker Alpha-1 receptor blocker
Novolog insulin aspart/ antidiabetic binds to insulin receptor
Flagyl metronidazole/ antibacterial, antiprotozoal causes bacterial DNA strand to break
Nasonex mometasone/ antiallergy inhibits phospholipase, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes (mediators of inflammation)
Restoril temazepam/ hypnotic benzodiazepine
Micronase glyburide/ antidiabetic sulfonylurea: increases pancreatic production
Xoponex levalbuterol/ antiasthmatic, bronchodilator beta-2 selective receptor agonist
Xalatan latanoprost/ glaucoma agent prostaglandin analogue
Benicar olmesartan/ ARB ARB
Alesse levonorgestrel & EE/ oral contraceptive levonorgestrel: binds to progesterone receptors EE: binds to estrogen receptors
Abilify aripiprazole/ antipsychotic partial DA and 5HT receptor agonist
Duoneb ipratropium & albuterol/ antiasthmatic see above for both
Armour Thyroid dessicated thyroid thyroid hormone replacement
nystatin nystatin oral/ antifungal Increases fungal cell membane permeability
Ziac bisoprolol & HCTZ bisoprolol: beta-1 receptor blocker HCTZ: diuretic
Created by: ashley3185



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